Anna University Syllabus OF Civil Engineering 3rd Semester
Transforms and Partial Differential Equations
UNIT I FOURIER SERIES
Dirichlet’s conditions – General Fourier series – Odd and even functions – Half range sineseries – Half range cosine series – Complex form of Fourier Series – Parseval’s identify – Harmonic Analysis.
UNIT II FOURIER TRANSFORMS
Fourier integral theorem (without proof) – Fourier transform pair – Sine and Cosine transforms – Properties – Transforms of simple functions – Convolution theorem – Parseval’s identity.
UNIT III PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
Formation of partial differential equations – Lagrange’s linear equation – Solutions of standard types of first order partial differential equations – Linear partial differential equations of second and higher order with constant coefficients.
UNIT IV APPLICATIONS OF PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
Solutions of one dimensional wave equation – One dimensional equation of heat conduction –Steady state solution of two-dimensional equation of heat conduction (Insulated edges excluded) – Fourier series solutions in cartesian coordinates.
UNIT V Z -TRANSFORMS AND DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS
Z-transforms – Elementary properties – Inverse Z-transform – Convolution theorem -Formation of difference equations – Solution of difference equations using Z-transform.
1. Grewal, B.S, “Higher Engineering Mathematic”, 40th Edition, Khanna publishers, Delhi, (2007)
1. Bali.N.P and Manish Goyal, “A Textbook of Engineering Mathematic”, 7th Edition, Laxmi Publications(P) Ltd.
2. Ramana.B.V., “Higher Engineering Mathematics”, Tata Mc-GrawHill Publishing Company limited, New Delhi
3. Glyn James, “Advanced Modern Engineering Mathematics”, 3rd Edition, Pearson Education
4. Erwin Kreyszig, “Advanced Engineering Mathematics”, 8th edition, Wiley India (2007).
ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING
UNIT I ENVIRONMENT, ECOSYSTEMS AND BIODIVERSITY
Definition, scope and importance of environment – need for public awareness – concept of an ecosystem – structure and function of an ecosystem – producers, consumers and decomposers – energy flow in the ecosystem – ecological succession – food chains, food webs and ecological pyramids – Introduction, types, characteristic features, structure and function of the (a) forest ecosystem (b) grassland ecosystem (c) desert ecosystem (d) aquatic ecosystems (ponds, streams, lakes, rivers, oceans, estuaries) – Introduction to biodiversity definition: genetic, species and ecosystem diversity – biogeographical classification of India – value of biodiversity: consumptive use, productive use, social, ethical, aesthetic and option values – Biodiversity at global, national and local levels – India as a mega-diversity nation – hot-spots of biodiversity – threats to biodiversity: habitat loss, poaching of wildlife, man-wildlife conflicts – endangered and endemic species of India – conservation of biodiversity: In-situ and ex-situ conservation of biodiversity. Field study of common plants, insects, birds Field study of simple ecosystems – pond, river, hill slopes, etc.
UNIT II ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION
Definition – causes, effects and control measures of: (a) Air pollution (b) Water pollution (c) Soil pollution (d) Marine pollution (e) Noise pollution (f) Thermal pollution (g) Nuclear hazards – solid waste management: causes, effects and control measures of municipal solid wastes – role of an individual in prevention of pollution – pollution case studies – disaster management: floods, earthquake, cyclone and landslides. Field study of local polluted site – Urban / Rural / Industrial / Agricultural.
UNIT III NATURAL RESOURCES
Forest resources: Use and over-exploitation, deforestation, case studies- timber extraction, mining, dams and their effects on forests and tribal people – Water resources: Use and overutilization of surface and ground water, floods, drought, conflicts over water, dams-benefits and problems – Mineral resources: Use and exploitation, environmental effects of extracting and using mineral resources, case studies – Food resources: World food problems, changes caused by agriculture and overgrazing, effects of modern agriculture, fertilizer-pesticide problems, water logging, salinity, case studies – Energy resources: Growing energy needs, renewable and non renewable energy sources, use of alternate energy sources. case studies – Land resources: Land as a resource, land degradation, man induced landslides, soil erosion and desertification – role of an individual in conservation of natural resources – Equitable use of resources for sustainable lifestyles.
Field study of local area to document environmental assets – river / forest / grassland / hill / mountain.
UNIT IV SOCIAL ISSUES AND THE ENVIRONMENT
From unsustainable to sustainable development – urban problems related to energy – water conservation, rain water harvesting, watershed management – resettlement and rehabilitation of people; its problems and concerns, case studies – role of non-governmental organizationenvironmental ethics: Issues and possible solutions – climate change, global warming, acid rain, ozone layer depletion, nuclear accidents and holocaust, case studies. – wasteland reclamation – consumerism and waste products – environment protection act – Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) act – Water (Prevention and control of Pollution) act – Wildlife protection act – Forest conservation act – enforcement machinery involved in environmental legislation- central and state pollution control boards- Public awareness.
UNIT V HUMAN POPULATION AND THE ENVIRONMENT
Population growth, variation among nations – population explosion – family welfare programme – environment and human health – human rights – value education – HIV / AIDS – women and child welfare – role of information technology in environment and human health – Case studies.
1. Gilbert M.Masters, ‘Introduction to Environmental Engineering and Science’, 2nd edition, Pearson Education
2. Benny Joseph, ‘Environmental Science and Engineering’, Tata McGraw- Hill,NewDelhi,
1. R.K. Trivedi, ‘Handbook of Environmental Laws, Rules, Guidelines, Compliances and Standards’, Enviro Media.
2. Cunningham, W.P. Cooper, T.H. Gorhani, ‘Environmental Encyclopedia’, Jaico Publ., House, Mumbai, 2001.
3. Dharmendra S. Sengar, ‘Environmental law’, Prentice hall of India PVT LTD, New Delhi, 2007.
4. Rajagopalan, R, ‘Environmental Studies-From Crisis to Cure’, Oxford University Press
UNIT I GENERAL GEOLOGY
Geology in Civil Engineering – Branches of geology – Earth Structures and composition – Elementary knowledge on continental drift and plate technologies. Earth processes – Weathering – Work of rivers, wind and sea and their engineering importance – Earthquake belts in India. Groundwater – Mode of occurrence – prospecting – importance in civil engineering.
UNIT II MINERALOGY
Elementary knowledge on symmetry elements of important crystallographic systems – physical properties of minerals – study of the following rock forming minerals – Quartz family. Feldpar family, Augite, Hornblende, Biotite, Muscovite, Calcite, Garnet – properties, behaviour and engineering significance of clay minerals – Fundamentals of process of formation of ore minerals – Coal and petroleum – Their origin and occurrence in India.
UNIT III PETROLOGY
Classification of rocks – distinction between igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. Description occurrence, engineering properties and distribution of following rocks. Igneous rocks – Granite, Syenite, Diorite, Gabbro, Pegmatite, Dolerite and Basalt Sedimentary rocks sandstone, Limestone, shale conglo, Conglomerate and breccia. Metamorphic rocks. Quartizite, Marble, Slate, Phyllite, Gniess and Schist.
UNIT IV STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY AND GEOPHYSICAL METHOD
Attitude of beds – Outcrops – Introduction to Geological maps – study of structures – Folds, faults and joints – Their bearing on engineering construction. Seismic and Electrical methods for Civil Engineering investigations
UNIT V GEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING
Remote sensing techniques – Study of air photos and satellite images – Interpretation for Civil Engineering projects – Geological conditions necessary for construction of Dams, Tunnels, Buildings, Road cuttings, Landslides – Causes and preventions. Sea erosion and coastal protection.
1. Parbin Singh, “Engineering and General Geology”, Katson Publication House, 1987.
2. Krynine and Judd, “Engineering Geology and Geotechniques”, McGraw-Hill Book Company,
1. Legeet, “Geology and Engineering”, McGraw-Hill Book Company 1998
2. Blyth, “Geology for Engineers”, ELBS, 1995
MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
UNIT I STRESS STRAIN AND DEFORMATION OF SOLIDS, STATES OF STRESS
Rigid bodies and deformable solids – stability, strength, stiffness – tension, compression and shear stresses – strain, elasticity, Hooke’s law, limit of proportionately, modules of elasticity, stress-strain curve, lateral strain – temperature stresses – deformation of simple and compound bars – shear modulus, bulk modulus, relationship between elastic constants – biaxial state of stress – stress at a point – stress on inclined plane – principal stresses and principal planes –Mohr’s circle of stresses.
UNIT II ANALYSIS OF PLANE TRUSS, THIN CYLINDERS / SHELLS
Stability and equilibrium of plane frames – types of trusses – analysis of forces in truss members method of joints, method of sections, method of tension coefficients – thin cylinders and shells – under internal pressure – deformation of thin cylinders and shells.
UNIT III TRANSVERSE LOADING ON BEAMS
Beams – types of supports – simple and fixed, types of load – concentrated, uniformly distributed, varying distributed load, combination of above loading – relationship between bending moment and shear force – bending moment, shear force diagram for simply supported, cantilever and over hanging beams – Theory of simple bending – analysis of stresses – load carrying capacity of beams – proportioning of sections
UNIT IV DEFLECTION OF BEAMS AND SHEAR STRESSES
Deflection of beams – double integration method – Macaulay’s method – slope and deflection using moment area method, Conjugate Beam method – variation of shear stress – shear stress distribution in rectangular, I sections, solid circular sections, hollow circular sections, angle and channel sections – shear flow – shear centre.
UNIT V TORSION AND SPRINGS
Stresses and deformation in circular (solid and hollow shafts) – stepped shafts – shafts fixed at both ends – leaf springs – stresses in helical springs – deflection of springs.
1. Egor P Popov, Engineering Mechanics of Solids, Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi, 2003
2. Bansal R.K. Strength of materials, Laxmi Publications, New Delhi – 2007
1. Subramanian R., Strength of materials, Oxford university press, New Delhi – 2005
2. William A.Nash, Theory and Problems of Strength of Materials, Schaum’s Outline Series, Tata McGraw-Hill
3. Srinath L.S, Advanced Mechanics of Solids, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Co., New Delhi, 2003.
MECHANICS OF FLUIDS
UNIT I DEFINITIONS AND FLUID PROPERTIES
Definitions – Fluid and fluid mechanics – Dimensions and units – Fluid properties – Continuum Concept of system and control volume.
UNIT II FLUID STATICS & KINEMATICS
Pascal’s Law and Hydrostatic equation – Forces on plane and curved surfaces – Buoyancy – Meta centre – Pressure measurement – Fluid mass under relative equilibrium Fluid Kinematics Stream, streak and path lines – Classification of flows – Continuity equation (one, two and three dimensional forms) – Stream and potential functions – flow nets – Velocity measurement (Pilot tube, current meter, Hot wire and hot film anemometer, float technique, Laser Doppler velocimetry)
UNIT III FLUID DYNAMICS
Euler and Bernoulli’s equations – Application of Bernoulli’s equation – Discharge measurement – Laminar flows through pipes and between plates – Hagen Poiseuille equation – Turbulent flow – Darcy-Weisbach formula – Moody diagram – Momentum Principle
UNIT IV BOUNDARY LAYER AND FLOW THROUGH PIPES
Definition of boundary layer – Thickness and classification – Displacement and momentum thickness – Development of laminar and turbulent flows in circular pipes – Major and minor losses of flow in pipes – Pipes in series and in parallel – Pipe network
UNIT V SIMILITUDE AND MODEL STUDY
Dimensional Analysis – Rayleigh’s method, Buckingham’s Pi-theorem – Similitude and models – Scale effect and distorted models.
1. Kumar, K.L., “Engineering Fluid Mechanics”, Eurasia Publishing House (P) Ltd., New Delhi, 1995.
2. Garde, R.J. and Mirajgaoker, A.G., “Engineering Fluid Mechanics”, Nem Chand Bros., Roorkee
3. Rajput, R.K., “A text book of Fluid Mechanics” , S.Chand and Co.,New Delhi – 2007
4. Fox, Robert, W. and Macdonald, Alan,T., “Introduction to Fluid Mechanics”, John Wiley & Sons, 1995
5. Modi, P.N. & Seth, S.M Hydraulics & fluid Mechanics, Standard book house , New Delhi – 2005.
1. Streeter, Victor, L. and Wylie, Benjamin E., “Fluid Mechanics”, McGraw-Hill Ltd., 1998.
2. E. John Finnemore and Joseph B. Franzini, “Fluid Mechanics with Engineering Applications”, McGraw-Hill
3. Pernard Messay, “Mechanics of Fluids” 7th Edition, Nelson Thornes Ltd. U. K. 1998.
CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES, EQUIPMENT AND PRACTICES
UNIT I CONCRETE TECHNOLOGY
Cements – Grade of cements – manufacture of cement – concrete chemicals and Applications – Mix design concept – mix design as per BIS & ACI methods – manufacturing of concrete – Batching – mixing – transporting – placing – compaction of concrete – curing and finishing. Testing of fresh and hardened concrete – quality of concrete – Non – destructive testing.
UNIT II CONSTRUCTION PRACTICES
Specifications, details and sequence of activities and construction co-ordination – Site Clearance – Marking – Earthwork – masonry – stone masonry – Bond in masonry – concrete hollow block masonry – flooring – damp proof courses – construction joints – movement and expansion joints – pre cast pavements – Building foundations – basements – temporary shed – centering and shuttering – slip forms – scaffoldings – de-shuttering forms – Fabrication and erection of steel trusses – frames – braced domes – laying brick –– weather and water proof – roof finishes – acoustic and fire protection.
UNIT III SUBSTRUCTURE CONSTRUCTION
Techniques of Box jacking – Pipe Jacking -under water construction of diaphragm walls and basement-Tunneling techniques – Piling techniques – well and caisson – sinking cofferdam – cable anchoring and grouting-driving diaphragm walls, sheet piles – shoring for deep cutting – well points -Dewatering and stand by Plant equipment for underground open excavation.
UNIT IV SUPER STRUCTURE CONSTRUCTION
Launching girders, bridge decks, off shore platforms – special forms for shells – techniques for heavy decks – in-situ pre-stressing in high rise structures, Material handling – erecting light weight components on tall structures – Support structure for heavy Equipment and conveyors – Erection of articulated structures, braced domes and space decks.
UNIT V CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT
Selection of equipment for earth work – earth moving operations – types of earthwork equipment – tractors, motor graders, scrapers, front end waders, earth movers – Equipment for foundation and pile driving. Equipment for compaction, batching and mixing and concreting – Equipment for material handling and erection of structures – Equipment for dredging, trenching, tunneling.
TEXT BOOKS :
1. Peurifoy, R.L., Ledbetter, W.B. and Schexnayder, C., “Construction Planning, Equipment and Methods”
2. Arora S.P. and Bindra S.P., Building Construction, Planning Techniques and Method of Construction, Dhanpat Rai and Sons
3. Varghese , P.C. Building construction, Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi, 2007.
4. Sheety, M.S, Concrete Technology, Theory and Practice, S. Chand and Company Ltd, New Delhi, 2005.
1. Jha J and Sinha S.K., Construction and Foundation Engineering, Khanna Publishers, 1993.
2. Sharma S.C. “Construction Equipment and Management”, Khanna Publishers New Delhi, 1988.
3. Deodhar, S.V. “Construction Equipment and Job Planning”, Khanna Publishers, New Delhi,1988.
4. Dr. Mahesh Varma, “Construction Equipment and its Planning and Application”, Metropolitan Book Company.
5. Gambhir, M.L, Concrete Technology, Tata McGraw – Hill Publishing Company Ltd.
UNIT I INTRODUCTION AND CHAIN SURVEYING
Definition – Principles – Classification – Field and office work – Scales – Conventional signs – Survey instruments, their care and adjustment – Ranging and chaining – Reciprocal ranging – Setting perpendiculars – well – conditioned triangles – Traversing – Plotting – Enlarging and reducing figures.
UNIT II COMPASS SURVEYING AND PLANE TABLE SURVEYING
Prismatic compass – Surveyor’s compass – Bearing – Systems and conversions – Local attraction – Magnetic declination – Dip – Traversing – Plotting – Adjustment of errors – Plane table instruments and accessories – Merits and demerits – Methods – Radiation – Intersection – Resection – Traversing.
UNIT III LEVELLING AND APPLICATIONS
Level line – Horizontal line – Levels and Staves – Spirit level – Sensitiveness – Bench marks – Temporary and permanent adjustments – Fly and check levelling – Booking – Reduction – Curvature and refraction – Reciprocal levelling – Longitudinal and cross sections – Plotting – Calculation of areas and volumes – Contouring – Methods – Characteristics and uses of contours – Plotting – Earth work volume – Capacity of reservoirs.
UNIT IV THEODOLITE SURVEYING
Theodolite – Vernier and microptic – Description and uses – Temporary and permanent adjustments of vernier transit – Horizontal angles – Vertical angles – Heights and distances – Traversing – Closing error and distribution – Gale’s tables – Omitted measurements.
UNIT V ENGINEERING SURVEYS
Reconnaissance, preliminary and location surveys for engineering projects – Lay out – Setting out works – Route Surveys for highways, railways and waterways – Curve ranging – Horizontal and vertical curves – Simple curves – Setting with chain and tapes, tangential angles by theodolite, double theodolite – Compound and reverse curves – Transition curves – Functions and requirements – Setting out by offsets and angles – Vertical curves – Sight distances – Mine Surveying – instruments – Tunnels – Correlation of under ground and surface surveys – Shafts – Adits.
1. Bannister A. and Raymond S., Surveying, ELBS, Sixth Edition, 1992.
2. Kanetkar T.P., Surveying and Levelling, Vols. I and II, United Book Corporation, Pune, 1994.
3. Punmia B.C. Surveying, Vols. I, II and III, Laxmi Publications, 1989
1. Clark D., Plane and Geodetic Surveying, Vols. I and II, C.B.S. Publishers and Distributors, Delhi, Sixth Edition,
2. James M.Anderson and Edward M.Mikhail, Introduction to Surveying, McGraw-Hill Book Company
3. Heribert Kahmen and Wolfgang Faig, Surveying, Walter de Gruyter, 1995.
SURVEY PRACTICAL I
LIST OF EQUIPMENTS :
1. Study of chains and its accessories
2. Aligning, Ranging and Chaining
3. Chain Traversing
4. Compass Traversing
5. Plane table surveying: Radiation
6. Plane table surveying: Intersection
7. Plane table surveying: Traversing
8. Plane table surveying: Resection – Three point problem
9. Plane table surveying: Resection – Two point problem
10. Study of levels and levelling staff
11. Fly levelling using Dumpy level
12. Fly levelling using tilting level
13. Check levelling
14. LS and CS
16. Study of Theodolite