AIIMS Biochemistry Syllabus
At the end of the course, the student should be able to: demonstrate his knowledge and understanding on the:
- Molecular and functional organization of a cell, and sub- cellular components;
- Structure, function and interrelationship of biomolecules and consequences of deviation from normal;
- Basic and clinical aspects of enzymology and regulation of enzymatic activity;
- Digestion and assimilation of nutrients and consequences of malnutrition;
- Integration of the various aspects of metabolism, and their regulatory pathways;
- Biochemical basis of inherited disorders and their associated sequelae;
- Mechanisms involved in maintenance of body fluid and pH homeostasis;
- Molecular mechanisms of gene expression and regulation, the principles of genetic engineering and their application in medicine;
- Molecular concepts of body defence and their application in medicine;
- Biochemical basis of environmental health hazards; and biochemical basis of cancer and carcinogenesis, principles of metabolism, and detoxication of xenobiotics.
- Principles of various conventional and specialized laboratory investigations and instrumentation, analysis and interpretation of a given data; the ability to suggest experiments to support theoretical concepts and clinical diagnosis.
At the end of the course, the student should be able to
- make use of conventional techniques/ instruments to perform biochemical analysis relevant to clinical screening and diagnosis
- analyze and interpret investigative data
- demonstrate the skills of solving clinical problems and decision making.
COURSE CONTENT Theory Biological cell
(a) Architecture, compartmentation, cell membrane structure and functions; structure- function relationships.
(b) Membrane transport.
(a) Function and classification of carbohydrates, lipids, protein and amino acids.
(b) Stereoisomerism and chemistry of monosaccharides, amino acids, and fatty acids.
(c) Structural organization and structure-function relationships of proteins. Hemoglobin and myoglobin, molecular mechanism of O2 transport and storage. Molecular basis of sickle cell anaemia and thallesemias.
(d) Molecular mechanism of muscle contraction.
(e) Plasma proteins, their functions and clinical significance.
(a) Nomenclature, classification,
(b) Kinetics, mechanism of enzymatic catalysis.
(c) Factors influencing enzymatic catalyses, enzyme activators and inhibitors.
(d) Regulation of enzyme activity,
(e) Clinical enzymology, isoenzymes.
Metabolic pathways, their regulation and metabolic interrelationships
Metabolism: general concepts and characteristics of metabolic pathways.
(a) Pathways of glucose metabolism: glycolysis
(b) HMP shunt
(d) Glycogenolysis, glycogenesis
(e) Galactose and fructose metabolism
(f) Glycogen storage disease
(g) Inborn errors of glucose metabolism
(h) Regulation of glucose metabolism.
Amino acid metabolism
(a) General reactions, transamination, its metabolic and diagnostic significance
(b) Disposal of amino acid nitrogen and detoxication of urea
(c) Metabolic fate of amino acid carbon skeleton
(d) Sulphur containing amino acids
(e) In born errors of branched chain and aromatic amino acids
(f) Important amino acid derivatives.
(a) Biosynthesis and degradation of fatty acids, phospolipids and triacylglycerols
(b) Biosynthesis of cholesterol, chemistry and metabolism of lipoproteins.
(d) Lipid storage disease.
(e) Ketone bodies: their synthesis, utilization and conditions leading to ketoacidosis, prostaglandin. TCA cycle and biological oxidation, prostanoids.
Regulation of the metabolic pathways
(a) Carbohydrate, lipid and amino acid metabolism
(b) Interlinks between these pathways.
(c) Organ interrelationships in metabolism,
(d) Blood glucose regulation, and its impairment in diabetes mellitus.
(e) Metabolic adaptation in the fed state, fasting and prolonged starvation.
(f) Metabolic derangements and adaptations in diabetes mellitus.
Food assimilation and nutrition
(a) Digestive enzymes, their action on dietary carbohydrates, fats and proteins.
(b) Absorption of glucose, amino acids and lipids.
(c) Gastric, pancreatic and intestinal function tests, liver function tests.
(d) Functions of dietary ingredients, the macro and micronutrients.
(e) Fat soluble and water soluble vitamins
(g) Iron metabolism and heme synthesis.
(a) Molecular basis of hormonal action, signal transduction mechanisms.
(b) Chemistry, functions and mechanism of action of hormones of the pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenals, panaceas, and gonads.
(c) Biosynthesis of steroid hormones their functions and mechanism of action.
(d) Pineal body
(e) Endorphins and encephalins,
(f) Calcium homeostasis.
(g) Hormonal interplay in the regulation of metabolism.
(a) Nucleic acids: DNA and RNA structure
(b) DNA Replication,
(c) DNA Transcription
(d) Post-transcriptional processing.
(e) Translation of genetic code
(f) Regulation of gene expression and protein synthesis inhibitors of protein synthesis.
(g) DNA repair mechanisms,
(h) Applied aspects of purine and pyrimidine metabolism
(i) Genetic Engineering: Recombinant DNA technology (j) DNA and diagnostics
(k) DNA repair mechanisms and related disorders
(l) Telomers, telomerases
(m) Inhibitors of DNA replication, apoptosis
pH, Buffer, physiological buffer systems
(a) Regulation of blood pH, acidosis, alkalosis,
(b) Renal functions tests.
(a) Reticuloendothelial system, components and functions of the innate and adaptive immunity.
(b) Role of T and B lymphocytes, antigen presentation
(c) Induction of immune response
(d) Cell mediated immune response
(e) Immunoglobulin structure and functions
(f) Humoral immune response
(g) Fate of antigen antibody complex,
(h) Complement system
(i) Generation of antibody diversity,
(k) Immunoregulation, autoimmunity, tolerance
(l) HLA, disease association & transplantation
(m) Immunological techniques, application in medicine (vaccines, immunotherapy, immunoassays and immunodiagnostics).
Environmental biochemistry, cancer and cancer makers
(a) Xenbiotics, interaction with biomolecules, effects, metabolism, detoxication,
(b) Biochemical characteristics of cancer
(c) Environmental pollutants and carcinogenensis.