AIIMS Anatomy Syllabus Practicals
Upper Limb: Dissection: Pectoral and scapular, axillary and shoulder region, arm, forearm.
Prosected parts: Joints, Palm and dorsum of hand.
Thorax : Dissection: Chest wall, mediastinum, pleura, lungs, heart.
Abdomen: Dissection: Anterior abdominal wall and inguinal region, external genitalia. Viscera and Posterior Abdominal wall and nerve plexus.
Pelvis: Dissection : Pelvic viscera, blood vessels and nerves.
Prosected Parts: Perineum including ischio-rectal fossa.
Lower Limb: Dissection: Gluteal region, front and back of thigh popliteal fossa, front back and lateral side of leg and dorsum of foot.
Prosected Parts: Sole of the foot and joints
Head & Neck: Dissection: Superficial and deep dissection of face and neck, orbit and eye ball. Submandibular region temporal and infratemporal fossa, cranial cavity, naso and oropharyngeal regions. Ear,. Larynx and pharynx.
Gross specimen of full brain, meninges, spinal cord, prosected specimens to demonstrate visual system, auditory and vesibular pathways and major functional areas.
Stained sections of brain and spinal cord at various levels to demonstrate cranial nerve nuclei, ascending and descending tracts, thalamic nuclei and important functional areas.
– Bones of skull and vertebral column
– Brain and spinal cord
– Cross-sectional anatomy
– Radiological anatomy
– CT and MRI scan
– Routine and special stained slides of all the tissues and organs of body.
– Electronmicrographs to demonstrate filtration barrier of kidney, alveolar septum, tight junctions of capillaries and such relevant areas.
– Models to demonstrate various stages of early foetus and different organ development.
– Slides of ovary and testis to show follicles and stages of maturation of spermatozoa: early chick and pig embryos to understand the development of tissues and organs from conception till term.
Demonstration of normal karyotype and common abnormal conditions including banding; Pedigree chart, syndromes and their clinical phenotype. Demonstration of various new techniques such as FISH.
- Demonstrate surface markings of important organs.
- Localise important pulsation and the structures against which pressure can be applied in case of bleeding from a particular artery.
- Demonstrate muscle testing and movements at joints.
- Locate sites for : Lumbar puncture, sternal puncture, pericardial tapping, liver biopsy.
- Locate veins for venae puncture.
- Locate the site for emergency tracheostomy.
- Locate the subcutaneous positions of large veins.
TEACHING AND LEARNING METHODOLOGY
Departmental Faculty and Staff emphasizes on teaching basic fundamentals of Gross anatomy, Microscopic anatomy and its correlation with function, developmental anatomy and anatomical basis of occurrence of congenital defects, nerve lesions and its anatomical basis and the applied aspects of relevant clinical conditions.
All divisions of Anatomy i.e. Gross, Histology, Embryology, Genetics and Neuroanatomy are taught with the help of didactic lectures on specific topics followed by dissection / practicals. The general pattern of teaching methodology followed by all the faculty members and teaching staff in the department is :
- Didactic Lectures : discussing the topic in detail in one hour lecture time.
Learning objectives are given to students before each session.
- Dissection : is done by students on the cadavers and is being assisted/supervised by a team of teachers. Some prossected specimen/dissection are shown on Ultrascope which is telecasted on TV monitors fitted in dissection Hall.
- Video tapes of some dissections are also shown on TV after the completion of dissection of the part/ region to recaptulate the details of the part/region dissected.
- Cross sections of whole body and brain are shown to correlate with MRI. X-rays are shown after dissection of each region.
- Self assessment MCQs are given at the end of dissection of each region and discussed with teachers in-charge.
- Handouts are given at the end of completion of part/region to the students to recaptulate and remember the Gross anatomy, Neuroanatomy, Embryology and Histology.
- In microanatomy, a preview of the slides is given on TV monitor in small groups to understand the structural details of tissue/structure/organ.
- In embryology, the serial sections of early chick embryos and pig embryos are demonstrated to understand the sequence of events involved in development of various systems and to understand the developmental basis of occurrence of various congenital abnormalities. Computer assisted programs for understanding the normal development of organ/systems is also demonstrated. Specimen and models depicting normal development of system are shown.
- In genetics, the phenotype photographs, karyotyPes and pictures of various banding techniques are shown to understand the chromosomal abnormalities and various syndromes.
- In Neuroanatomy, the stained sections at various levels of brain and spinal cord are shown on slides and computers to localize the cranial nerve nuclei and trace the origin, course and termination of ascending and descending tracts in order to understand the effects produced as a result of lesions.
- Case studies of neural lesions are discussed to understand the location and level of lesions.
- Demonstrations : Mainly the bones of the entire body, few dissected specimen are taught in small groups.
By a combination of the above teaching-Learning tools and modalities the student is able to understand the development, gross and microscopic structure of the organ systems and gain an insight into the structure-function correlation. This combined with the knowledge of applied/clinical anatomy provides an understanding of the anatomical basis of health and disease.
LIST OF BOOKS RECOMMENDED
- Gross Anatomy
- Cunningham’s Manual of Practical Anatomy Vols.I, II & III Oxford University Press,
15th edition (1996)
- Clinical Anatomy for Medical Student, 6th Edition (2000) Little, Brown & Co.
- Text book of Human Osteology, Jaypee Brothers, Medical Publishers.
Histology : A text & atlas, 3rd edition (1995), Williams & Wilkins
Atlas of Histology with functional correlation. International Edition 9th (2000).
- Textbook of Human Histology (4th Edition)
Jaypee Brother, 2002.
- Developmental Anatomy
- Medical Embryology, 8thEdition Williams & Wilkins
- The Human Nervous System : An Anatomical View Point, 7th Edition, 1998.
Harper & Row
- Neuroanatomy : An Illustrated Color Text,
2nd Edition, 2000
- 1. Surface and Radiological Anatomy, 1st Edition,
1998, CBS Publishers.
- 1. Thomson and Thomson Genetics in Medicine, 6th Edition, 2001 W.B.Saunders Company
M.H. Ross, E.& L.J Romell, G.I. Kaye
Di Fiore’s Inderbir Singh
Murray L Barr & Keirman
AR Crossman and D Neary
Robert L.Nussbaum Roderick R.Mc.Innes Huntington E.Willard
EXAMINATION PATTERN & MARKS DISTRIBUTION
Total Marks Internal Assessment Professional Examination
Paper I (General Anatomy and Gross Anatomy of whole body) 50
Paper II (Embryology, Microanatomy, Neuroanatomy & Genetics) 50
Total (Theory) 100
Practicals (Gross Anatomy, Embryology, Histology, Neuroanatomy, Genetics) 65
Viva Voce 35
Total (Practical & Viva) 100
Grand Total (Theory + Practicals & Viva) 200
Comprise of mainly Short Answer Questions (SAQs), diagrams of cross sections and important arrangement / relation of viscera, fill in the blanks etc.
Include identification of slides, models, photographs, specimen, prossected parts, X-rays, MRI and structure in cross sections at various levels of body.