4th century bc, a passage in the first chapter of the Book of Daniel describes a comparative protocol of diet and health. The ancient Hindus also excelled in early medicine, especially in surgery, and there is evidence of Indian hospitals in Ceylon in 437 and 137 bc.
THE GREEK AND ROMAN INFLUENCE Hippocrates 460 370 bc is considered the father of modern medicine, exhibited the strict discipline required of a clinical investigator. His emphasis on the art of clinical inspection, observation, and documentation established the science of medicine. First known recorded clinical observations of disease came during this age of Greeks and romans. These case studies describe, among other maladies, malarial fevers, diarrhea, dysentery, melancholia, mania, and pulmonary edema with remarkable clinical acumen. MIDDLE AGES AND RENAISSANCE Hospitals and nursing, with origins in the teachings of Christ, became defined institutions although the forerunner of hospitals can be traced to the ancient Babylonian custom of bringing the sick into the marketplace for consultation, and the Greeks and Romans had military hospitals . By the 1100s and 1200s, hospitals were being built in England, Scotland, France, and Germany. Pre-Renaissance medicine of the 14th and 15th centuries saw the birth of Consilia or medical-case books, consisting of clinical records from the practice of well-known physicians. The Renaissance 1453 1600 represented the revival of learning and transition from medieval to modern conditions many great clinicians and scientists prospered. At this time, many of the ancient Greek dictums of medicine, such as Galen s four humors, were discarded. Perhaps the most important anatomist of this period was Leonardo da Vinci 1453 1519 . Da Vinci created more than 750 detailed anatomic drawings Fig. 1-2 .
Example of anatomic drawing by Leonardo da Vinci, Trunk of female human body, with internal organs seen as though ventral side were transparent SEVENTEENTH CENTURY Studies of blood began in the 17th century, William Harvey 1578 1657 convincingly described the circu-lation of blood from the heart through the lungs and back to the heart and then into the arteries and back through the veins. The first well-documented transfusions of blood into humans were done in 1667 by Richard Lower and Edmund King in London and mentioned in Pepys diary. EIGHTEENTH CENTURY Antony van Leeuwenhoek of Delft 1632 1723 invented the microscope. Although he is best known for using his microscope to provide the first descriptions of protozoa and bacteria, Leeuwenhoek also provided the first description of striated voluntary muscle, the crystalline structure of the lens, red blood cells, and spermatozoa. Modern clinical trials can be recognized in the 1700s. Scurvy was a major health problem for the British Navy. William Harvey earlier had recommended lemons to treat scurvy but argued that the therapeutic effect