ICSI Strategic Management Alliances and International Trade Solved Question Paper Dec 2013
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to entry, import licensing, domestic content regulations, voluntary export restrains etc. that countries use in order to restrict the imports. Non-tariff barriers to trade can be the following 1. Import bans 2. General or product specific quotas 3. Rules of origin 4. Quality conditions imposed by the importing country on the exporting countries
Appen dix C S Pro fessio nal Program me Mo dule - III Paper 5
5. Sanitary and phytosanitary conditions 6. Packaging conditions 7. Labelling conditions 8. Product standards 9. Complex regulatory environment etc. Types of Non-Tariff Barriers Some of the popular Non Tariff Barriers are given below 1. Import licensing barriers 2. Import quota restrictions 3. Standard testing labelling and certification requirements 4. Export subsidies and domestic support 5. Government procurement 6. Service barriers 7. Lack of adequate protection to intellectual property rights 2013 - June 8 a One of the fundamental characteristics of the TRIPS Agreement is that it makes protection of intellectual property rights an integral part of the multilateral trading system, as embodied in the WTO. The TRIPS agreement is often described as one of the three pillars of the WTO, the other two being trade in goods The traditional domain of the GATT and trade in services GATS . The TRIPS agreement is part of the WTO resulting from the Uruguay Round negotiations. That implies that the TRIPS agreement applies to all WTO members. It also means that the provisions of the agreement are subject to the integrated WTO dispute settlement mechanism, which is contained in the Dispute Settlement understanding The under standing on Rules and Procedures Governing the Settlement of disputes . Chapter - 14 Anti-dumping Duties 2013 - June 6 e Margin of Dumping The margin of dumping is the difference between the normal value and the export price of the goods under complaint. Margin of dumping Normal price - Export price It is generally expressed as a percentage of the export price. Then, Margin of Dumping Important Note Normal value and Export price must be compared at the same level of trade i.e. at the ex-factory level.