Poultry Diseases : A Guide for Farmers And Poultry Professional
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PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION This book is written for poultry farmers and poultry professionals. The theme effective disease diagnosis, treatment and control. The objective prevention of losses, more profits and better economics. The picture of poultry disease has changed over the years and the classical symptoms and postmortem findings, once so helpful in disease diagnosis, are no longer all that classical or helpful. Moreover, certain bacteria, like that of fowl cholera, have developed variations in their make-up through the years, giving rise to several different types of the same organism. Also, certain viruses, such as that of infectious bronchitis, have a natural tendency toward genetic mutation. This can lead to generation of new strains against which present vaccines may be totally ineffective. Such changes continually occurring in poultry health, and resultant disguised version of the disease, have not only confused the farmer but posed a serious challenge even for the professionals. In addition, several new diseases keep constantly knocking at the door. Therefore, unless diseases are properly diagnosed and effectively controlled, poultry farming can no longer remain a profitable proposition in the present competitiveness. It is with this objective that the book has been written, to acquaint the farmers with changing disease scenario and also with complexities of the problem. Change is the law of nature and poultry diseases are no exception. We must be well equipped for the challenges ahead. There will be no point in locking the stable door after the horse has run away The book has five sections, divided into 43 chapters. The first section deals with infectious, nutritional, and metabolic diseases as well as miscellaneous conditions. While the main emphasis is on diagnosis, treatment and control, other aspects have been dealt with for those interested to know more. The second section is on disease diagnosis. The third relates to disease treatment prevention. Apart from providing a comprehensive list of commercial medicines and vaccines, this section also covers important topics like antibiotic growth promoters, probiotics, mould inhibitors, toxin binders, enzymes, oligosaccharides, osmoregulators, methyl donors, acidifiers, and biosurfactants. The fourth section discusses disease control. Disease-producing bacteria are abundant in the poultry world. This is because, like higher forms of life, they must also fight for their survival. Being small, they have been provided by nature with a survival potential and possess the ability to reproduce in extremely large numbers. These large numbers mean that their spread and presence will be extremely great. Therefore, to achieve the best results from any disease control programme, attention has to be given to the ways in which disease organisms can spread and examine management closely to find out where and how this spread can be minimized. All these aspects are dealt with in the first three chapters o f this section, namely, biosecurity, disinfection, and sanitation.
Another important aspect of disease control discussed in the fourth section is the subject of vaccines and vaccination. Already there are so many commercial vaccines in the market and new ones keep coming. Also, so much technical literature keeps pouring all the time on immunity and chicken s immune system that the farmer is often confused and even lost. Keeping this in view, the fundamentals and certain basic concepts o f the chicken s immune system are discussed. This is followed by a discussion o f the impact nutrients have in boosting immunity in the chicken and thereby prevent early chick mortality. The remaining two chapters o f this section devote to properties o f the vaccines and various vaccination schedules. The fifth and final section, tips on rearing and management , has been added with the firm belief that origin of more than 80 o f the poultry health problems lies in poor management, and that there can be no profitable poultry industry without proper