NCERT Mathematics Textbook for Class VII
About this eBook
Preface The National Curriculum Framework NCF , 2005 suggests the need for developing the ability for mathematisation in the child. It points out that the aim of learning mathematics is not merely being able to do quantitative calculations but also to develop abilities in the child that would enable her him to redefine her his relationship with the World. The NCF-2005 also lays emphasis on development in the children logical abilities as well as abilities to comprehend space, spatial transformations and develop the ability to visualise both these. It recommends that mathematics needs to slowly move towards abstraction even though it starts from concrete experiences and models. The ability to generalise and perceive patterns is an important step in being able to relate to the abstract and logic governed nature of the subject. We also know that most children in upper primary and secondary classes develop a fear of mathematics and it is one of the reasons for students not being able to continue in schools. NCF-2005 has also mentioned this problem and has therefore emphasised the need to develop a programme which is relevant and meaningful. The need for conceptualising mathematics teaching allows children to explore concepts as well as develop their own ways of solving problems. This also forms corner-stone of the principles highlighted in the NCF-2005. In Class VI we have begun the process of developing a programme which would help children understand the abstract nature of mathematics while developing in them the ability to construct their own concepts. As suggested by NCF-2005, an attempt has been made to allow multiple ways of solving problems and encouraging children to develop strategies different from each other. There is an emphasis on working with basic principles rather than on memorisation of algorithms and short-cuts. The Class VII textbook has continued that spirit and has attempted to use language which the children can read and understand themselves. This reading can be in groups or individual and at some places require help and support by the teacher. We also tried to include a variety of examples and opportunities for children to set problems. The appearance of the book has sought to be made pleasant by including many illustrations. The book attempts to engage the mind of the child actively and provides opportunities to use concepts and develop her his own structures rather than struggling with unnecessarily complicated terms and numbers. We hope that this book would help all children in their attempt to learn mathematics and would build in them the ability to appreciate its power and beauty. We also hope that this would enable to revisit and consolidate concepts and skills that they have learnt in the primary school. We hope to strengthen the foundation of mathematics, on which further engagement with studies as well as her daily life would become possible in an enriched manner. The team in developing the textbook consists of many teachers who are experienced and brought to the team the view point of the child and the school. We also had people who have done research in learning of mathematics and those who have been writing textbooks for mathematics for many years. The team has tried to make an effort to remove fear of mathematics from the minds of children and make it a part of their daily routine even outside the school. We had many discussions and a review process with some other teachers of schools across the country. The effort by the team has been to accommodate all the comments. In the end, I would like to place on record our gratefulness to Prof Krishna Kumar, Director, NCERT, Prof G. Ravindra, Joint Director, NCERT and Prof Hukum Singh, Head, DESM, for giving opportunity to me and the team to work on this challenging task. I am also grateful to
vi Prof J.V. Narlikar, Chairperson of the Advisory Group in Science and Mathematics for his suggestions. I am also grateful for the support of all those who were part of this team including Prof S.K. Singh Gautam, Dr V.P. Singh and Dr Ashutosh K. Wazalwar from NCERT, who have worked very hard to make this possible. In the end I must thank the Publication Department of NCERT for its support and advice and those from Vidya Bhawan who helped produce the book.