Land Drainage : Principles, Methods and Applications

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Publisher: Vikas Publishing
ISBN: 9788125927761
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Preface Providing drainage facility to irrigated agricultural land is as important an activity as irrigation itself. Drainage provides for an escape of the unwanted excess water that occurs over the flowirrigated lands. Without adequate drainage, water congestion on the surface and in the crop root zone occurs that harms the crop environment and the crops. Runoff due to heavy rains in the monsoon season also needs to be removed from the crop land to save the growing crops, avoid fast water table rise into the crop root zone and also to make the soil workable faster. A properly designed, executed and maintained agricultural drainage system ensures all these, which enhance the sustainability of irrigation benefits. The benefits of irrigation are quick to accrue, while the ill effects of improper water management are visible later. Meanwhile, gradual degradation occurs to the irrigated lands due to water table rise, soil salinization and alkali condition, all adversely affecting crop production. At an advanced stage of land degradation, the remedy through drainage becomes expensive or difficult. Land drainage is well-practised in most of the developed nations even though agriculture may not be the main stay of their national economy. The general principles of surface and sub-surface drainage are universally true. However, the applications of specific procedures vary with the soil, climate, topography and socio-economic situations. Drainage needs in Monsoon Asia, for example, are distinctly different from those in other geographical regions. In many of the Central and West Asian countries and in North Africa salt management assumes major importance along with water table control. Absence of a comprehensive and authoritative text reference book, oriented to the problems of agricultural drainage in India and the developing world has been a major limitation in the application of appropriate technology in this area of vital importance in agricultural production. Land Drainage Principles, Methods and Applications presents the latest information, concepts and technology for ensuring sustainable agricultural production and environmental management by adopting land drainage measures. The book has been prepared as a text for a university level Land Drainage course the degree or the post-graduate programme in Agricultural Engineering Irrigation and Drainage Engineering Soil and Water Conservation Engineering , Civil Engineering Water Resources Engineering and Agricultural Science Soil and Water Management and Watershed Management . It is intended to serve as a valuable reference book for professionals scientists engineers technicians engaged in the area of land development and water management, including land development in general and irrigation project command areas and watershed development in particular. In addition to its use as university level text and reference, students of Polytechnics engineering agricultural and professionals undergoing training in Water and Land Management Institutes WALMIs and allied institutes will find the book a valuable reference. The book provides a clear understanding of the physical and chemical processes leading to land degradation and how drainage helps in preventing or controlling such processes. The relationships between main design variables, soil, climate and other relevant environmental factors as well as the reliability and limitations of the current theories and formulas are thoroughly described. Economics and institutional aspects of drainage are presented wherever applicable. The case studies presented give relevance to the applicability of the theory and practice to solve real world problems and are of great value to practising professionals. The subject matter is
divided into eleven chapters, each dealing with a distinct area of study. The introductory chapter highlights the relevance of drainage as an integral component of irrigation system development. A global review of large-scale irrigation development and resulting drainage and salt problems arising out of their mismanagement has been presented. Many indigenous technologies, which are relatively inexpensive and are being successfully practised in some of the developing countries,