In Vitro Plant Breeding

In Vitro Plant Breeding
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In Vitro Plant Breeding

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Publisher: Agrobios Publications
ISBN: 9788177543995
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Preface
Biotechnology is the controlled engineering of plants suing in vitro methods. As a technology, it is competent to meet the challenge for the increased turnover of biomass for the energy production. The world s demand for food, shelter and wood is expected to double by 2030. Hence, a large scale propagation and rapid multiplication of short duration plants, synthesis of novel, disease resistant, high yielding, disease free and photosynthetically efficient plants can no doubt help to solve many of the problems. Morgan 1901 coined the term totipotency to denote the capacity of a cell to develop into an organism by regeneration. Haberlandt 1902 originated the concept of cell culture and first attempted to cultivate the isolated plant cells in vitro on an artificial medium. In 1930 s, R.P. White USA , Gautheret France and Nobecourt France independently cultured tissues excised from several plants on the defined nutrient media for a long period. Skoog and Miller 1957 advanced the concept of organogenesis. Cocking 1960 isolated and cultured plant protoplast. Guha and Maheshwari 1966 developed techniques for the production of embryos from the culture of anther and the sporageneous tissues of anther. Tissue culture methods have far-reaching implications for the induction of genetic variability through somatic hybridization, induction of mutants and selection of disease free as well as disease resistant plants. In vitro haploid production will quicken the development of inbreds instant and mass multiplication of elite plants. Recent strides in plant molecular biology paved the way for the DNA mediated gene transfer. The structure of blue print of life i.e. DNA, deduced by Watson and Crick 1962 and the action of certain endonucleases in making nick and scission of DNA brought out by
Arber, Nathan and Smith 1970 s made scientists to transfer genes across taxonomic barriers and irrespective of origin, birth and dignity. From 1980 onwards, large number of transgenic plants were produced both in monocots and dicots by the uptake and incorporation of foreign genome and DNA recombinations. Plant biotechnology is racing ahead in geometric proportion because, unlike biotechnology of animals, plants raise few social, moral and legal issues. Tissue culture and genetic engineering are the most important component of biotechnology. It is envisaged that in future agricultural and forest biotechnology will complement the classical methods breeding and generate novel variabilities. It will open new vistas to enable the improved production of many agronomically important plants. There is a growing need for a simple textbook in in vitro plant breeding. It is our earnest hope that this present book will meet the demand for a comprehensive textbook on tissue culture and genetic engineering for the students of both under and post graduation. The authors acknowledge the vice-chancellor and registrar for granting permission to write and publish the book. The help and support extended by the Dean, Faculty of Agriculture is duly acknowledged