Nature and Scope of Management
Nature and Scope of Management
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relationships. The contents and nature vary, depending in the level at which the position lies. As one moves upward in the organisation, the managerial position plays an important role, larger the contribution, greater the authority and higher the responsibility. These managerial positions lying in the chain of command may be classified into various groups or levels of management. Broadly speaking, an organisation has two important levels of management, namely functional and operative. The functional level is concerned with the process of determining primary objectives, formulating basic policies, making vital decisions and controlling and coordinating activities of personnel. The operative level of management is related to implementation of plans and decisions, and pursuit of basic policies for achieving the objectives of the organisation. Generally, the levels of management consisting of various managerial positions in the structure of an organisation, differ from one organisation to another, depending on the size of business activity, philosophy of management, span of control and other related factors. But, in a joint stock company, for conducting its business efficiently, managerial personnel may be placed in three levels, that is, top, middle and lower or supervisory level.
Top Level Management The top level management is generally occupied by the ownership group. In a joint stock company, equity shareholders are the real owners of the company. Thus, they elect their representatives as directors, form a board, known as board of directors, which constitutes the top level of management. Besides the board, other functionaries including managing director, general manager or Chief executive to help directors, are included in this level. It is the highest level in the managerial hierarchy and the ultimate source of authority in the organisation. The top level managers are accountable to the owners and responsible for overall management of the organisation. The major functions of the top level management are as under i To make a corporate plan for the entire organisation covering all areas of operations. ii To decide upon the matters which are vital for the survival, profitability and growth of the organisation such as introduction of new product, shifting to new technology and opening new plant etc. iii To decide corporate goals. iv To decide structure of organisation, creating various positions there in.
Management Principles and Practices
v To exercise overall managerial control through the process of reviewing over all financial and operating results. vi To make decisions regarding disposal and distribution of profits. vii To select key officials and executives for the company. viii To coordinate various sub-systems of the organisation. ix To maintain liaison with outside parties having a stake in business such as government, trade union and trade associations etc. x To formulate basic policies and providing direction and leadership to the organisation as a whole.