About this eBook
PREFACE The surroundings of any individual or thing include categories like i the combination of physical conditions affecting and influencing the growth and development of an individual or community ii the social and cultural conditions affecting the nature of an individual or community and iii the surroundings of an inanimate object of intrinsic social value. The comprehensive definition of environment as stated by European Commission, the Governing Body of European Community is the combination of elements whose complex inter-relationships make up the setting, the surroundings and the conditions of life of the individual and of society, as they are felt. The place of humanity at the centre stage is beyond any question. The environment of human being includes the abiotic devoid of life factors of land, water atmosphere, climate, sound, odours and tastes and biotic factors of human being, fauna, flora, bacteria and viruses and all those social factors which make up the quality of life . Ingredients of the word environment as reflected in most national legislation are 1 all aspects of the surroundings of human being, whether affecting human being as individual or in social groupings 2 natural resources including air, land and water 3 ecosystems and biological diversity 4 fauna and flora 5 social, economic and cultural circumstances 6 infrastructures and associated equipment 7 any solid, liquid, gas, odour, heat, noise, vibration, or radiation 8 unidentified natural assets like natural beauty, outlooks and scenic routes 9 unidentified historical and heritage assets 10 unidentified cultural and religious assets 11 aesthetic assets 12 public health features and 13 unidentified environmental planning, environmental protection, environmental management, pollution control, nature conservation and other mitigation measures. Human are increasingly anxious about their life-support systems and about the quality of their environment. The very relationship between humans and their environment now attracts greater attention. The side effects of resource use are now far more widely acknowledged and use of environmental resources have become political issues at local, national and even at international levels. Impact is the effect of one thing upon another. The major dimensions of Environmental Impact Statement are a pollution and ecological effect of air, water, noise, radiation levels, fauna and flora, ecology, bio-diversity, contamination levels, visual environment aesthetics, soil erosion and land degradation, drainage and sewerage, waste generation and climate b natural effects on agricultural land, forest resource, water supplies, minerals and marine resource, energy resource, wetlands, coral, mangroves, rainforest etc. c social effects on settlement patterns, employment, land use, housing, social life, accessibility, safety, residential amenity, minority group, aged, unemployed, disabled, women and the socio-economic profile of the effected community and d economic effects of employment opportunities, accessibility to facilities, services, urban infrastructure, choice and affordability of goods and services, real income, land prices and the likely multiplier effect. All these dimensions may also be conceived into two categories 1 microenvironmental impact effects problems which are affecting the lives of citizens and 2 microenvironmental impact effects problems which are problems of a regional, national and international character.
Admittedly, last few decades has witnessed a fundamental change in the manner government and development agencies think about the environment and development. Truly, development strategies and related programmes which do not take adequate care of the state of critical resources forests, soils, grasslands, freshwater, coastal areas and fisheries may degrade the resource base upon which future growth is dependent. Since the last few decades we have started to recognize global warming as critical to our overall welfare. Professor Jayanta Kumar Datta has narrated this phenomenon from its basics point of view and suggested the key mitigation issues in the first chapter on Global Warming and its Mitigation Strategies . Professor Anil Kumar De in chapter on Some Environmental Issues Global Worming and Agrarian Crisis has emphasized that scientists, technologists and policy markers all over the world are seriously obsessed with the burning environmental issues of the day as a matter of human survival on planet earth. The key issues viz., global warming and