# Modern Engineering Physics By Deepak Chandra Ghosh, Nripesh Chandra Ghosh, Prabir Kumar Haldar

# Modern Engineering Physics By Deepak Chandra Ghosh, Nripesh Chandra Ghosh, Prabir Kumar Haldar

**- Publisher:**Laxmi Publications

**- ISBN:**9788131803660

**- Author:**Deepak Chandra Ghosh, Nripesh Chandra Ghosh, Prabir Kumar Haldar

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PREFACE This book has been primarily written for the Engineering students of West Bengal University of Technology WBUT . Needless to mention this book will also cater the need of Engineering students of other Universities within India and abroad. The volume is specifically intended to serve this purpose. In preparing the book, the guiding thought has been to develop a unified treatment of subject matter with clarity and conciseness in lucid and simple language. No more than a higher secondary background in physics has been assumed. It is hoped that the student will find no difficulty to follow the mathematical approach and its logical interpretation with little or no guidance. To familiarize the students with the basic principles of physics and their implementation, we have included numerous solved examples, a number of MCQs and problems to be solved by the students. We have also included infocus section at the end of each chapter to apprise the students about the most important aspect in it. Also we have incorporated a table indicating the connection between basic scientific input and corresponding Technology. This will motivate the students and will create in them an urge to aspire to greater things. In preparing the manuscript, we are grateful to the authors of standard textbooks we freely consulted. A bibliography has been appended at the end. We wish to express our sincere thanks to Dr Kanchan Kr Patra, Dr Rosalima Sengupta and Sri Arindam Mondal of RCC Institute of Information Technology, Dr Swamp Ranjan Sahoo of Government College of Engineering and Ceramic Technology and Dr Rini Chatterjee of Techno India for their active suggestions and help. Our effort will be rewarded if the Engineering students will find this book interesting and useful. Suggestions, comments and criticisms for the improvement of the book will be gratefully acknowledged. Authors

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Module 1 C.V. Raman

Oscillation 1.1

SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION

If the motion of a body or a particle is found to describe the same path repeatedly in some definite interval of time, its motion is said to be periodic, and the time taken by the body or particle to complete its path once is called its period. The number of times the path described by the body in a unit time is known as frequency. The periodic motion of a body is said to be oscillatory or vibratory when it is reversed in direction after a definite to interval of time. The to and fro motion of a pendulum is an example of motion of this type. A body moving uniformly in a circle executes a periodic motion, but the motion is not vibratory or oscillatory. It is the simplest type of oscillatory motion of a body with the following characteristics i The motion is oscillatory or vibratory and is repeated after equal intervals of time. ii The restoring force acting on the body or its acceleration is always proportional to its displacement from some fixed point on its path called its mean position iii Its acceleration is always directed towards its mean position. iv The motion is linear i.e., along a straight line. A particle will vibrate if any displacement from its rest position calls into play a force i.e., restoring force or force of restitution which tries to bring the particle back to its position of rest. This force may be expanded in powers of displacement x and can be written as ... 1.1.1 Restoring force F x a0 a1x a2x2 a3x3 ............... When x 0 i.e., there is no force, we must have a0 0. For small displacement, the next term a1x varies directly as x. For restoring forces, a1 is negative. The coefficients a2, a3, etc., are