Surveying & Levelling Volume-I

Surveying & Levelling Volume-I
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Surveying & Levelling Volume-I

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Publisher: IK International
ISBN: 9788190694209
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Availability: In Stock
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About this eBook

Preface
Surveying and Levelling is an important subject for all civil engineers engaged in the field work. They are either called to prepare plans and maps or to use them to prepare the civil engineering projects on to set out the works using the maps. The subject is vast and is taught in two to three courses to undergraduate students. Though many modern techniques have come up still earlier methods like chain survey and compass survey cannot be given up since for all small projects they are commonly used methods. Apart from that the principles lying in these surveys are applicable even in surveying with modern equipment. All common methods of surveying and levelling have been covered in this first volume. The computation of areas and volumes using surveying and levelling is also covered. Various minor instruments used in engineering offices are explained in the last chapter. A sincere effort has been made to present the subject in simple language and with neat sketches so that students can understand it easily. It is hoped that faculty and engineering students will find this book highly useful. Suggestions for improvements are most welcome. I acknowledge the encouragement and help of the teaching and non-teaching staff of N.I.T.K. Surathkal, B.V.B. C.E.T. Hubli, SDMCEI, Dharwad and RYMEC, Bellary. S.S. Bhavikatti
Contents
Preface
1. Introduction 1.1 Plans and Maps 1.2 Applications of Surveying 1.3 Primary Divisions in Surveying 1.4 Classification of Surveying 1.5 Measurements 1.6 Units of Measurements 1.7 Scales 1.8 Types of Graphical Scales 1.9 Vernier Scale 1.10 Special Forms of Verniers 1.11 Shrunk Scale 1.12 Methods of Locating a Point in Plain Survey with Respect to Two Reference Points 1.13 Principles of Surveying 1.14 Survey of India and Topological Maps 1.15 Phases of Works in Surveying Questions 2. Errors in Surveying 2.1 Types of Errors 2.2 Sources of Errors 2.3 Most Probable Value of Accidental Error 2.4 Errors in the Computed Quantities 2.5 Accuracy in Measurement 2.6 Relative Accuracy between Linear and