Computer Integrated Manufacturing Notes eBook
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sequent chapters, automation allows the manufacturer to reduce the time between customer order and product delivery. This gives the manufacturer a competitive advantage in promoting good customer service.
Reduction of in-process inventory Holding large inventories of work-in-process represents a significant cost to the manufacturer because it ties up capital. Inprocess inventory is of no value. It serves none of the purposes of raw materials stock or finished product inventory. Accordingly, it is to the manufacturer's advantage to reduce work-in- progress to a minimum. Automation tends to accomplish this goal by reducing the time a workpart spends in the factory.
High cost of not automating A significant competitive advantage is gained by automating a manufacturing plant. The advantage cannot easily be demonstrated on a company's project authorization form. The benefits of automation often show up in intangible and unexpected ways, such as improved quality, higher sales, better labor relations, and better company image. Companies that do not automate are likely to find themselves at a competitive disadvantage with their customers, their employees, and the general public. All of these factors act together to make production automation a feasible and attractive alternative to manual methods of manufacture.
TYPES OF PRODUCTION Another way of classifying production activity is according to the quantity of product made. In this classification, there are three types of production 1. Job shop production 2. Batch production 3. Mass production
1.Job shop production. The distinguishing feature of job shop production is low volume. The manufacturing lot sizes are small, often one of a kind. Job shop production is commonly used to meet specific customer orders, and there is a great variety in the type of work the plant must do. Therefore, the production equipment must be flexible and general-purpose to allow for this variety of work. Also, the skill level of job shop workers must be relatively high so that they can perform a range of different work assignments. Examples of products manufactured in a job shop include space vehicles, aircraft, machine tools, special tools and equipment, and prototypes of future products. Construction work and shipbuilding are not normally identified with the job shop category, even though the quantities are in the appropriate range. Although these two activities involve the transformation of raw materials into finished products, the work is not performed in a factory.
2. Batch production This category involves the manufacture of medium-sized lots of the same item or product. The lots may be produced only once, or they may be produced at regular intervals. The purpose of batch production is often to satisfy continuous customer demand for an item. However, the plant is capable of a production rate that exceeds the demand rate. Therefore, the shop produces to build up an inventory of the item. Then it changes over to other orders. When the stock of the first item becomes depleted, production is repeated to build up the inventory again. The manufacturing equipment used in batch