Handbook on C++ Language By Sangita Sardana

Handbook on C++ Language By Sangita Sardana
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Handbook on C++ Language By Sangita Sardana

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Publisher: Laxmi Publications
ISBN: 9789380298672
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PREFACE I am highly glad to present a series on Computer Languages. Writing a book to serve students community, gives a great feeling of satisfaction. Various books on High Level Languages are available in the market but it has been my desire to present such a series on computer languages which could serve the students community in some different manner which could be well acceptable by all. Generally students feel that the books available on the high do not cater to their requirements and there is a dearth of programming examples and graded programs. With the inspiration provided by my students, I have been able to frame a series of four different computer languages C, C , Java and Visual Basic. Presentation in all the four books is almost on the similar lines. This treatise covers chapters in uniform manner i.e., from beginning level to advanced level of C language. Advanced topics like Files, Linked Lists, Stacks, queues etc. have been explained in an understandable manner. Each and every topic has been explained with examples and illustrations. A sufficient number of programming examples has been provided in the book after the topics and as a separate portion in the form of More Worked Out Examples . Actual screen shots have been given both with program listings and output run. All efforts have been made to provide the text in an error-free form yet there is a chance within human limitations that some error might have crept in inadvertently. Readers are requested to brought such errors in our notice so that future edition of this book could be improved. The author can be contacted at sangitsardana yahoo.co.in. Author
vii
1 INTRODUCTION
TO
C
INTRODUCTION C is a powerful programming language which has been derived from C language. C high level retains most of its C heritage. It has adopted basic data types, operations and program structure from C language. C was developed in 80 s by Bjarne Stroustrup. Simply we can say that C is a superset of C language with extensions and improvements and object oriented features included in it.
CHARACTERISTICS OF C C is an object oriented programming language with a huge library of functions. Its popularity is increasing rapidly and programmers are inclining towards C due to its multiple features. 1. C is highly flexible language with versatility. It can be used for developing system software viz., operating systems, compilers, editors and data bases. 2. C is ideally suited for development of reusable software. This helps in cost reduction of software development. 3. There is no need of re-written software at the time when a computer is upgraded. C is a machine independent language.
CHARACTERS USED IN C The set of characters used in C consists of alphabets, digits and special characters. The following table represents the characters used in this language. Letters