Principles of Pharmagonacy

Principles of Pharmagonacy
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Principles of Pharmagonacy

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Publisher: Agrobios Publications
ISBN: 9788177543803
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PREFACE
It was not until 1815 that the term Pharmacognosy was introduced by Seydler. This name is formed from two Greek words, pharmakon, drug, and gnosis, knowledge, and literally means the entire knowledge of drugs. The most comprehensive idea of the scope of pharmacognosy was presented by Fluckiger, who stated that it "is the simultaneous application of various scientific disciplines with the object of acquiring knowledge of drugs from every point of view." The American Society of Pharmacognosy defines pharmacognosy as "the study of the physical, chemical, biochemical and biological properties of drugs, drug substances or potential drugs or drug substances of natural origin as well as the search for new drugs from natural sources." Pharmacognosy is one of the five major divisions of the pharmaceutical curriculum, represents the oldest branch of the profession of pharmacy. The ancients gathered herbs, animals, plants, and minerals and concocted them into ill-flavored pungent mixtures. Innumerable remedies were known to the early practitioners of pharmacy and medicine, a fact indicated by the writings of Theophrastus, Pliny, Dioscorides, and their contemporaries. Thousands of plant and animal prod-ucts used for the treatment of ills were described by Dioscorides in his book "Dc Materia Medica." Of these a surprisingly large number are still of importance in modern therapeutic practice Aspidium, Cinnamon, Ergot, Ilyoscyamus, and Opium were used in much the same manner as today. In a broad sense, pharmacognosy embraces a knowledge of the history, distribution, cultivation, collection, selection, preparation, commerce, identification, evaluation, preservation, and use of drugs and economic substances affecting the health of man and other animals. Such economic substances extend beyond the category of crude drugs and their derivatives and include a variety of commercial products allergens, allergenic extracts, antibiotics, immunizing biologicals, flavoring agents, condiments, beverages, insecticides, rodenticides, and herbicides. In a restricted sense, the definition of pharmacognosy implies a particular knowledge of methods of identification and evaluation of drugs. As a part of the pharmaceutical curriculum pharmacognosy plays an important role as liaison agent between pharmacology and pharmaceutical chemistry on one hand and between pharmacy and pharmacy administration on the other. Pharmacology, like pharmacognosy, is an outgrowth of the old-time materia medica it is easy to see the correlation of these two sciences concerning drugs of biological origin. The pharmacology student has a more complete understanding of the action of belladonna leaf if he is aware of the physical nature of the drug and its chemical constituents. Some of the laboratory
procedures in pharmaceutical chemistry have miniature counterparts in the extractions and microchemical tests essential for the identification and evaluation of certain drugs. Methods of collection, curing, drying, and assaying affect the price of drugs and, insofar as economics are concerned, pharmacognosy is intimately associated with phases of pharmacy administration dealing with prescription pricing. The relationship of pharmacognosy to operative pharmacy and dispensing pharmacy is obvious when one considers the number of plant and animal products handled by the pharmacist in this synthetic age. Because of his knowledge of drug constituents and their physical and chemical properties, the pharmacist is able to predict incompatibilities in actual compounding. In dispensing non-compounded prescription specialties, he is conversant with a vast store of information permitting him to confer intelligently with his fellow colleagues in the medical, dental, and nursing professions. The present book is an attempt to provide overall information to the readers interested in pharmacognosy. The important chapters are History, Origin of Pharmacognosy, Definition, Scope and Future Trends in Pharmacognosy, Classification of Crude Drugs,