Plant Health Management

Plant Health Management
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Plant Health Management

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Publisher: Agrobios Publications
ISBN: 9788177544459
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Preface Plant disease is a physiological disorder or structural abnormality that is deleterious to the plant or to any of its parts or products, or that reduce their economic value Stakman and Harrar, 1957 . Disease is a malfunctioning process that is caused by continuus irritation. The cause of diseases may be of two kinds Living Animate viz. Viruses and viroids, mycoplasmas, protozoa, bacteria, fungi, algae, phanerogam, nematodes and insects and non living inanimate , due to deficiencies or excess of nutrients, continuus use of plant pesticide causing iatrogenic diseases. Early development facets of plant pathology concentrated mainly on describing the various causal agents understanding the actual mechanisms of pathogenesis, including spread of the disease and modes of survival of pathogen with the help of appropriate experimental studies, and use of sophisticate methodology and instrumentation to characterize the newly discovered pathogens and studies on their pathogenicity. As the importance of plant diseases and of plant pathology as a new discipline began to be recognised, the scientist began to experiment in all areas of the plant pathology. Concurrently with the discovery and description of new disease and new pathogens, plant pathologist began design experiments in order to understand the various events and mechanisms of disease development in plants. They also began study of the variability among pathogens and disease expression in different varieties. There were also undertaken experiments works on methods of plant disease control. For thousands of years, humans depended on a few crop plants for sustenance and survival. Wheat, rice, maize, millets, potato, legumes etc. have provided the stable food to man world over. Plant diseases have affected the existence, growth and productivity of all kinds of plants. There are several historical and present examples of losses caused by diseases viz. Late blight of potato Irish famine, 1845-46 Brown spot of rice The great Bengal famine, 1973 Powdery mildew of grapes European epidemics, 1840-50 Downy mildew of grapes European epidemics, 1870-80 Coffee rust South-east Asia 1870-80 Chestnut blight USA, 1904-40 Cereal rust, smut worldwide and ergot of rye and wheat Bacterial diseases Citrus canker and soft rot of vegetables Viral diseases Sugarcane mosaic, Barley yellow dwarf, Tomato spotted wilt Nematode diseases Root-knot, viroid Diseases Cadang-cadang of coconut. The foregoing instances of plant disease epidemics make it evident that they affected not only the concerned countries but also other countries of the world. These events lead to the growth of plant pathology as well as migration of people to other areas and had also social and political impacts. During the 20th century, there has been dramatic explosion in human population. The developing countries including India, in which 50-80 of the population is engaged in agriculture, have the lowest agriculture output and they have the highest population growth rate. To feed these people and additional to come in next few years, all possible
methods of increasing world crop production are being currently pussued. From among different methods, crop production is important in reducing the losses due to plant disease insect pest and weeds. Every suffers from losses due to one or the other disease. Crop protection become even more important in the intensive agriculture, where increased fertilization, genetically uniform high yielding varieties, increased irrigation and other methods are used. In India, wheat rust are responsible for a loss of about Rs. Four Crore every year. During the tears of epiphytotic this figure reaches to more than Rs. 50 crore. Loose smut of wheat causes an average loss of 3 every year. In UP ear cockle of wheat, a nematode disease was responsible for a 50 loss in the crop produce few year back. Different smuts of Jowar and Bajra cause severe losses every year. Some other diseases