Advances in Seed Science and Technology Volume 6 : Fruit Seed Production

Advances in Seed Science and Technology Volume 6 : Fruit Seed Production
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Advances in Seed Science and Technology Volume 6 : Fruit Seed Production

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Publisher: Agrobios Publications
ISBN: 9788177544480
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PREFACE India is the second largest producer of fruits after China, with a production of 44.04 million tonnes of fruits from an area of 3.72 million hectares. A large variety of fruits are grown in India, of which mango, banana, citrus, guava, grape, pineapple and apple are the major ones. Apart from these, fruits like papaya, sapota, annona, phalsa, jackfruit, ber, pomegranate in tropical and sub-tropical groups and peach, pear, almond, walnut, apricot and strawberry in the temperate group are also grown in a sizeable area. Although the fruits are grown throughout the country, the major fruit growing states are Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and Gujarat. India's export of fresh fruits has increased from Rs. 225.67 Crores USD Million 50.98 in 2005-06 to 256.43 Crores USD Million 56.88 in 2006-07. The major countries which import fresh fruits from India are U.K, Netherlands, U.A.E, Russia, Bahrain, Qatar, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Bangladesh and Nepal. Fruits are also rich source of vitamins, minerals, proteins, carbohydrates etc., which are essential in human nutrition. Hence, these are referred to as protective foods and assumed great importance as nutritional security of the people. Thus, cultivation of fruit crops plays a vital role in the prosperity of a nation and is directly linked with the health and happiness of the people. However, per capita consumption of fruits in India is only around 46g against a minimum of about 92g recommended by Indian Council of Medical Research and National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad. With the present level of population, the annual requirement of fruits will be of 32.58 million tonnes. To meet this requirement, the National Commission on Agriculture has projected an area of 4m.ha under fruits by 2000A.D. The recent emphasis on horticulture in our country consequent to the recognition of the need for attaining nutrition security and for more profitable land use has brought about a significant change in the outlook of the growers. The need for great utilization of available wastelands against the background of dwindling water and energy resources has focused attention to dry land, to arid and semi-arid tracts and to horticultural crops, which have lesser demands on water and other inputs besides being 3 to 4 times more remunerative than field crops. It is estimated that India has 240 million acres of cultivable wasteland, which is lying idle and this can be brought under orchard crops without curtailing the area under food crops. The country has abundant sunshine throughout year, surplus labour and widely varied agro-climatic conditions, which offers high potential for successful and profitable commercial horticulture. Cultivation of these crops is labour intensive and as such, they generate lot of employment opportunities for the rural population. The major constraints in fruit cultivation is the lack of supply of good quality planting materials and lack of knowledge on the production technologies for quality planting materials by the nurserymen. To answer these problems, this volume on Fruit Seed Production has been prepared at appropriate time. This book briefly discusses on seed science and technological aspects like floral biology, maturity, collection and extraction of seeds, seed dormancy, methods of breaking seed dormancy, germination improvement, seed storage nursery techniques and protection of seedlings of tropical, sub tropical and temperate fruits. Macropropagation methods like cuttings, layering, grafting and budding and micropropagation techniques were also compiled. Emphasis have also been made in this book on horticultural aspects viz, nutritive value and uses, soil and climate, varieties, planting, manures and
fertilizers, irrigation, intercultural operations, training and pruning, plant protection measures, harvesting and yield of fruits. This book is highly useful for the academician, researchers, aspirants of competitive examinations, policy makers and entrepreneurs involved in seed and nursery seedling production, and orchard management. EDITORS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The editors express their sincere thanks to the authors of different chapters for their painstaking and sustained efforts in creating the contents very meticulously.