Advancements in Insect Biodiversity
Advancements in Insect Biodiversity
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PREFACE Bharat or Bharatavarsha in Hindi and India in English is the country that occupies the greater part of South Asia. It is a constitutional republic consisting of 28 states and 7 union territories. More than one-sixth of the world's total population 1,014,004,000 people estimated in year 2001 lives here, the second most populous country, after China. The land of India - together with its ancient companions Bangladesh and Pakistan - forms a well-defined subcontinent, set off from the rest of Asia by the imposing northern mountain rampart of the Himalayas and by lesser adjoining mountain ranges to the west and east. In area, India ranks as the seventh largest country in the world, covering 3,166,414 squares Kms. just slightly more than 2 percent of the Earth's total land surface. India is bordered by six countries, measuring about 15,168 Kms. of which 5,686 Kms. is the coastline along Bay of Bengal and the Arabian sea. Lakshadweep in the Arabian Sea and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, which lie between the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea, are the union territories with enough of faunal and floral diversity. The Great Himalayan range, Shivaliks, lesser high Vindhyachal, Satpura, Aravali, Western Ghats and Eastern Ghats are the altitudes occupying about 18 of the land area. They also build separate ecological territories responsible for the distribution of thousands of faunal and floral species. The Great Thar desert west to Aravali hills has substantial life biodiversity co-specific to the western deserts upto middle east and Egypt. The country is traversed by several major and minor rivers. The Doab of Ganga and Yamuna along with their hundreds of tributaries, Brahmputra, Narmada, Tapti, Mahanadi, Krishna, Godavari and Kaveri are the few to name with. The climate of Indian region is more or less tropical. The variants are towards subtemperate or temperate moving onto the north in Himalaya becomes exclusively tropical moving towards south. North-central part of the country faces winters when sun shines at Equator but rest of southern peninsula remain almost homoeothermic with regard to temperature variation. Country is largely dependent upon Monsoon rains for its floral and ultimately its dependent faunal growth. The highest percentage of relative humidity varies from 85 to 95 and the lowest from 5 to 15 , depending upon various eco-geographical regions. The great variation in eco-geography harbours thousands of floral species and ultimately their affiliated animal species. Apparently, almost all groups of fauna flourish well in this south Asian peninsular region. So as around 70,000 species of the insects. This publication attributes to the biodiversity and biosystematics of various insect groups found in India. Insecta as a whole and in parts of it such as order Coleoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Isoptera and Odonata, are well dealt with. Many authorities have made their contributions in imparting an overview of the insect fauna of the country and others have attributed for their specified regions or of various states.
The publications presented in this volume can be listed as Diversity of Indian beetle fauna presented by Dr. Pal, T. K. He has reviewed order Coleoptera enlisting 17,036 beetle records from India, and has made an overwhelming comparison with the Global record. Dr. Narendran, T. C. has explored the Oriental species of genus Perilampus Hymenoptera . He has added 9 species of the genus new to the world record and has subsequently presented an identification key for the 27 oriental species. Dr. Gupta, R. K. has presented An overview of Bees of India detailing diversity of 60 genera with 633 species of bees recorded so far from modern Indian territories. Dr. Parui, P., Dr. D. Banerjee and Dr. B. Mitra have reported 141 genera of aquatic Diptera found in India in their fascinating publication. Biosystematic revision of the carpenter bees of Indian