Principles and Practices of Organic Farming

Principles and Practices of Organic Farming
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Principles and Practices of Organic Farming

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Publisher: Agrobios Publications
ISBN: 9788177544367
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PREFACE
losing enthusiasm. Similarly, one should never lose enthusiasm as it is the only force, which drives people to perform at their best and allows them to
Organic farming is developing rapidly and now practiced in more than 120 countries of the world. Globally 30.4 million ha of the agricultural land are currently managed organically. India ranks as 33rd in total area under organic cultivation. India has now become a leading supplier of organic herbs, organic spices, organic basmati rice, etc. to the developed nations. The export realization during 2007-08 was around 78 million US registering a 200 growth over the previous year. Though organic farming is an inevitable phenomenon, it alone cannot feed the billion population of India. To ensure the food and nutritional security, rather than promoting organic farming enmasse and universally, it would be desirable to carefully delineate areas for or no use of fertilizers and other agro-chemicals. The Government of India has taken considerable efforts to promote the organic farming without compromising the food grain production to feed the over growing population in India. Launching of and the dedication of were the landmark achievements in the arena of organic farming in India. Organic farming is a production system that avoids the use of synthetic chemical fertilizers, pesticides and growth regulating hormones, and raises the crops with the use of organic manures, crop rotation, legumes, green manure and biological pest control. India is the third largest consumer of fertilizers in the world, having currently fertilizer consumption 20.3 million Anonymous, 2007 . This has resulted in not only selfsufficiency in food grains production but also made the country food surplus. Use of these high-analysis chemical fertilizers in imbalanced and indiscriminate manner has developed many problems like decline of soil organic matter, increase in salinity and sodicity, deterioration in the quality of crop produce, increase in hazardous pests and diseases, and increase in soil pollutants Chakarborti and Singh, 2004 . Continuous use of inorganic fertilizers has not only brought about loss of vital soil fauna and flora but also
resulted in loss of secondary and micronutrients. In view of these facts, supply of all the plant nutrients has been advocated through organic sources only, but organic farming may not be feasible in modern commercial agriculture because it is unable to sustain high level of production to meet the food grain supply for the ever increasing population Tarafdar et al., 2008 . There is very little research work on total use of organic sources and that too is limited to horticultural and vegetable crops. Till now the research was oriented to increase the yield through integrated use of organic and inorganic sources. Experiences in the past have shown that it is impossible to attain sustainable agricultural production through the use of inorganic fertilizers. The present study was conducted to explore the possibility of improving the productivity and sustainability of rice wheat system by supply of nutrients through organic source. In India, rice Oryza sativa L. - Wheat Triticum aestivum L. Fiori and Paol is the dominant cropping system across the Indo-Gangetic plains and in the Himalayan foot-hills. Approximately 10.5 m ha area under this system contributed to 25 total food grain production of India. Results of long term experiments conducted at Faizabad Kumar et al., 2007 and other places in the country Swaroop, 2002 have shown decline or stagnation in the productivity of this system. The decline in organic matter content and associated changes in nutrient availability and physical properties of soil seem to be closely related with this. The deficiencies of secondary and micronutrients are also affecting the performance of this region in newer areas Chakraborti and Singh, 2004 . Organic farming is a production system which favours maximum