Maize Crop Science

Maize Crop Science
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Maize Crop Science

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Publisher: Agrobios Publications
ISBN: 9788177544015
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PREFACE
Butterfly keeps flying from one flower to another in search of nectar without losing enthusiasm. Similarly one should never lose enthusiasm as it is the only force, which drives people to perform at their best and allows them to achieve the worthiest of causes Maize is the world s third most cereal crop after wheat and rice. Among the cereals, the productivity of maize is the highest 4.1 t ha as compared to rice 3.7 t ha and wheat 2.5 t ha . Corn is produced largely in the western hemisphere and Europe. It is the most important grain crop in the United States. About 40 of world maize production is from the United States followed by China. About 58 of the world maize production is in the developed countries with the U.S.A. as the major producer and exporter while about 22 developing countries. Other corn producing countries are China, Brazil, Mexico, Russia, India, Indonesia and Philippines. Due to high productivity, maize is called as the Queen of Cereals . Maize is grown primarily for grain, secondarily for fodder, raw material for industrial process and diversified products. Apart from this, maize has varied specially uses such as pop corn, sweet corn, high amylase corn, baby corn, corn cob, quality protein maize QPM etc. Maize occupies a significant position in our diet as corn flour and corn flake too. Maize grain is used as food and feed, maize stalk is used as fodder and even the same plant after harvest of green cobs is used as fodder. Maize plant is a wonderful creation of God because it can be used at any stage of crop growth i.e., early stage as succulent green fodder, very early cob stage as baby corn, little later stage as green cob, and at fully matured stage as maize grain. So, it is called as a Contingent Crop . The grain crop of maize is harvested when cob sheath turns brownish, grains become hard and they do not contain more than 20 per cent moisture in them. There are two methods of maize harvesting viz., plucking of cobs and
stalk cutting. The left over plants are used for hay, the sheath is used for fuel, and cobs after grains are separated out are used as fuel. Maize grown for fodder are harvested at the milk to early dough stage, the earlier harvested crop usually yields less and is poor in protein content. For silage making late dough is preferred. Grain yields vary according to variety, place of cultivation and inputs used. Normally in case of local varieties of low fertility a yield of one or two tones per hectare is observed while hybrid open pollinated composite varieties grown in Indo-Gangetic plain have yielded about four tones ha and the same varieties in Peninsular India around 5-7 tonnes ha. Maize crop furnishes huge quantities of green fodder for cattle. Several industries like starch, milling etc., are based on maize products and byproducts. In addition to big industries, several cottage industries are also flourishing on the byproducts of maize. Maize is called as Queen of cereals , Contingent crop and an Emerging Industrial Crop . The importance of this crop is much more than other crops. Maize is ideally suited to intercropping with legumes such as green gram, black gram, gram, arhar, soybean, cowpea, groundnut etc. Legumes improve soil fertility on account of improved organic carbon matter in soil. Legume crops leave a substantial amount of residual N which may vary from 30 kg to 60