With 5 days to go – Watch out success secrets for UGC NET Exam

Hi UGC NET Aspirants,

Kopykitab Team wishes all the UGC NET aspirants a very good luck for the exam.

The National Eligibility Test (NET) to be conducted on 22th of Jan, 2017 by the Central Board of Secondary Education on behalf of University Grants Commission (UGC). We are left with some days in our hand for the final and accomplished preparations.

As we all know very few of us are able to give our complete time and concentrations for preparations since many us are be busy with our research works, regular academic works, job etc. But it is sure that if you can give some little committed hours in recent available days with full concentration you can easily clear Junior Research Fellowship or Eligibility for Assistant Professor.

What you have to be is honest to the time which you are giving for it and to adapt a very structured method of study.

Most of the students at the end are worried about their preparation for the examination. They are doubtful, whether they would be doing well or not. A lot of students start to loose confidence and get tensed, as a result their performance is drastically affected. Considering all this, Kopykitab has released questions from experts to help student on how to attempt MCQs and boost their confidence. These questions will give you idea of real time exam questions and how to apply forward and backward method to solve MCQs.

Teaching & Research Aptitude (General Paper-I)

Expected Question Paper For Exam 2017: Click Here

General Paper-I Top 100 Questions For Exam 2017: Click Here

100 Questions Must Practice For UGC NET 2017: Click Here

General Paper-I 2017 Questions Bank by Experts: Click Here

UGC NET 2017 Final Paper: Click Here

 

Get Exclusive UGC NET Papers For Your Exam 

UGC NET/JRF Solved Papers: Click Here

UGC NET Teaching & Research Aptitude (General Paper-I): Click Here

UGC NET Paper-II: Click Here

UGC-NET Paper-III Objective Type Question Bank(New Pattern): Click Here

UGC-NET Paper-II & Paper-III: Click Here

 

Know how to use the support material | It is prepared to supplement the NCERT textbook

To download Class 10 Support Material: Click Here 

1. This support material is prepared to supplement the NCERT textbook.This is not the replacement of NCERT textbook. It is neither a guide nor a refresher.

2. Chapter-wise synopsis is given to show the degree of importance in respect of various concepts .While preparing for examination and concepts/questions can be given more emphasis to pass in examination.

3. Preparation of highlighted/dark words is very much helpful to achieve passing mark as well as to reach highest score in the subject.

4. Flow charts/mind map are made for instant revision of chapters.

5. Chapter-wise questions given in support material can be used for self-assessment, assignment and revision of the chapters.

6. Last three years CBSE questions and selected sure shot questions with solution have been given in the last section of every chapter.This will help students to acquaint with nature and pattern of CBSE questions.

7. Split up of syllabus, distribution of marks as per CBSE guidelines have been given as annexures.

9. Read “points to remember” and highlighted words— prepare mind map, flow chart/ tables—– Solve test questions—- Solve CBSE questions—— Writing practice.

 

Click Here to get the Support Material

 

 

Preparing mathematics is easier as compared to other subjects like science

Sample Papers & Question Bank With Solutions

According to Experts, you should go with the sample question papers and question banks, before going through important questions. Here we have covered the most important sample questions for 10th CBSE, which all have a great chance of coming in your board exam this year.

Preparing mathematics is easier as compared to other subjects like physics and chemistry, because mathematics is totally based on numerical problems, and a number of questions in mathematics repeats every year. One can easily make an idea about the upcoming questions by solving the sample papers of mathematics class 10th.

As you know that mathematics is the only subject in which you can score 100 out of 100 marks if you try, and once you develop an interest in it, then things will get so much interesting and fun.

Below is the best collection of sample papers for each subject and questions from each chapter.

Oswaal Publications: 
  • Oswaal CBSE CCE Sample Question Papers For Class 10 Term I : Click Here
  • Oswaal CBSE CCE Sample Question Papers For Class 10 Term II: Click Here
  • Oswaal CBSE CCE Question Bank With Complete Solutions For Class 10 Term I : Click Here
  • Oswaal CBSE CCE Question Bank With Complete Solutions For Class 10 Term II : Click Here
  • Oswaal CBSE CCE Pullout Worksheets For Class 10 Term-I : Click Here
  • Oswaal CBSE CCE Pullout Worksheets For Class 10 Term-II : Click Here
  • Oswaal Tamilnadu SSLC Question Bank With Complete Solution For Class 10th (English 1st- 2nd Paper) : Click Here
  • Oswaal KSEEB SSLC Question Bank with Complete Solution & Interactive Formative Assessment Activities For Class 10: Click Here
  • Oswaal Maharashtra SSC Question Bank With Complete Solution For Class 10 : Click Here
  • Oswaal Kerala SSLC Question Bank For Class 10 English With Complete Solutions : Click Here

MBD Group Publishers :

  • MBD Sure Shot CBSE Sample Papers Solved Class 10 : Click Here
  • Disha Publications :
  • NCERT Handbook Term 1 & Term 2 For Mathematics and Science & Technology Class 10 (NCERT Solutions + FA Activities + SA Practice Questions & 5 Sample Papers) : (Click here for paper)

Target NTSE Class 10 Stage 1 & 2  Solved Papers + 5 Mock Tests (MAT + LCT + SAT) 4th Edition : (Click here for paper)

Arihant Publications :

Jagran Josh : 
  • CBSE Class 10th Solved Question Papers,Practice Papers & Guess Papers PCMB  : ( Click here for paper )
S Chand Publications : 
  • S Chand Books for Physics Chemistry Biology & Mathematics :  ( Click here for paper )
  • S Chand’s Best Book For English Grammer : Wren And Martin High School English Grammar and Composition Key : ( Click here for paper )

These study materials will really help you in solving tricky GATE questions to secure AIR-1

The Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering (GATE) is an all-India level entrance exam for getting admission in post graduate programs (M.E., M.Tech, direct Ph.D.). It is conducted every year by Indian Institute of Science (IISc) and 7 Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs at Bombay, Delhi, Guwahati, Kanpur, Kharagpur, Madras and Roorkee).

In order to keep the moral high and to help you with the right preparation strategy, we are providing Expert Study Material on Civil Engineering, Mechanical Engineering & Electrical Engineering that can help you succeed in the upcoming GATE 2017 Exam.

These study materials will really help you in solving tricky GATE questions and get that extra edge over all other candidates to secure AIR-1.Every concept was described in great detail and was suitably supported by standard examples

GATE Study Material (Civil Engineering)

  1.  Surveying  Click Here
  2.  Geotechnical Engineering  Click Here
  3.  SOM  Click Here
  4.  Strength Of Materials And Mechanics of Solids  Click Here
  5.  Structural Engineering  Click Here
  6.  Transportation Engineering  Click Here

GATE Study Material (Mechanical Engineering)

  1.  Machine Design  Click Here
  2.  Heat Transfer  Click Here
  3.  Industrial Engineering  Click Here
  4.  SOM  Click Here
  5.  Strength Of Materials And Mechanics of Solids  Click Here
  6.  Theory of Machines  Click Here
  7.  Mechanical Vibrations  Click Here

GATE Study Material (Electrical Engineering)

  1.  Control Systems  Click Here
  2.  Analog And Digital Electronics  Click Here
  3.  Electrical And Electronic Measurements  Click Here
  4.  Electrical Circuits And Fields  Click Here
  5.  Electrical Machines  Click Here
  6.  Power Systems  Click Here
  7. Signals And Systems  Click Here

We really hope your preparation is going on well. Do share your valuable feedback with us.

Prepping up for GATE – This is how toppers do it right

Why are losing to become a Topper, because of price issue?

Now you can rent the book or you can pay chapter by chapter in just Rs.35

Click Here To add this book in your shelf.

Engineering Mathematics plays important role when you are in top (let’s say 1000) candidates. at that time one question right or wrong makes difference of 1 or 2 marks, and this leads to significant difference in GATE score & Ranking. So the moral is that prepare maths very well.

You know why Toppers recommend Engineering Mathematics By NP Bali And Dr.Manish Goyal Book

The underlying object of this book is to provide the readers with the thorough understanding of topics included in the syllabus of Mathematics for engineering students.

  • a-textbook-of-engineering-mathematics-300x380It exactly covers the prescribed syllabus. Nothing undesirable has been included and nothing essential has been left.
  • Its approach is explanatory and language is lucid and communicable.
  • The exposition of the subject matter is systematic and the students are better prepared to solve the problems.
  • All fundamentals of the included topics are explained with a micro-analysis.
  • Maximum number of solved examples have been given to let the students understand the various skills necessary to solve the problems. These examples are well-graded.
  • Unsolved exercises of multi-varieties have been given in a well-graded style. Attempting those on his own, will enable a student to create confidence and independence in him/her regarding the understanding of the subject.
  • Daily life problems and practical applications have been incorporated in the body of the text.
  • A large number of attractive and accurate figures have been drawn which enable a student to grasp the subject in an easier way.
  • All the answers have been checked and verified.

” The best preparation for tomorrow is doing your best today “

Maths is one section of GATE that can make or break your result, since it has a weightage of 15 marks, that is HUGE.
Maths is something which we all study in first and second year of engineering invariably. And also, most of us dread about the subject. Mathematics syllabus of GATE is more or less in line with the college syllabus. Talking about the difficulty level, it is moderately difficult. That is to say, it’s not very easy but not very tough either.

NEET Exam Sample Papers – Unlimited Questions For NEET

NEET Solved Sample Papers For those who are going to appear for the NEET Exam which will be conducting annually. So candidates those who are preparing for the NEET Medical Entrance Exam have the opportunity to download these Sample Paper with Solution that will help you very much to prepare in the better way for this Medical entrance Exam.

NEET is one of the Toughest Exam held for Biology students to get admissions in Popular Medical colleges. So here you can check the previous Year Sample Papers with Fully Solved Answers.

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CBSE Class 10 Sample Papers – Know Why Its Important To Practice

CBSE Class 10 Sample Papers – 

  • Sample papers will help you cover the entire syllabus. It lets you be prepared for all possible questions. It helps you find out what you have read, and what you have not- Self study.
  • It helps you to get a better review of where you stand in terms of your preparation. Solving the oswaal sample papers for class 10 will help you grow your confidence in your studies. You will know how well prepared you are.Confidence goes a long way. You need not be a wizard to crack the CBSE exams. All you need to have is a little confidence that you can do this.

Latest Oswaal Sample Papers for Class 10  Designed from standard CBSE Board Papers and NCERT Book


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RTU Syllabus Electronics And Communication Engineering 8th Semester

RADAR & TV ENGINEERING

Unit-1

RADAR – Radar Block diagram, frequencies and applications. Radar range equation. Continuous wave (CW) & FM radar; Moving target indicator (MTI): Delay line cancellers, blind velocity Pulse Doppler Radar. Tracking radar sequential lobbing, Conical scan and monopulse radar, Types of display, Radar receivers, Noise figure. NAVIGATIONAL AIDS – Principle of operation of Radar direction finder & range system. LORAN system, DME, TACAN, Aircraft landing systems.

Unit-2

T.V. systems. Block diagram of T.V. transmitters. Principles of Monochrome and colour T.V.system (PAL, SECAM, NTSC). Theory of scanning standards, Composite video signal analysis. T.V Cameras : Image orthicon, plumbicon, vidicon and CCD camera tubes. Types of Analog Monochrome and colour picture tubes,

Unit-3

Processing and transmission of TV signals: Modulation of video and sound signals, Vestigial side band transmission,
Compatibility of colour and monochrome frequency interleaving & transmission of colour signals, Picture, sound and colour sub carriers. Encoding picture information. Generation of colour, colour difference and Chrominance signal modulation.TV transmission & reception antennas.

Unit-4

Basic circuits of TV RECEIVER: Functional block diagram of T.V. receiver, R.F. Tuner, I.F. amplifier, Video detector, video amplifier, AGC, Synch. Separation, Sync. Processing and AFC. Deflection oscillators, vertical & horizontal deflection and sound system circuits. EHT generation. Common faults and their diagnosis. Basic idea of HDTV, DBS-TV and 3D-TV.

Unit-5

MODERN TV SYSTEM: Digital transmission and reception of TV signals, DISHTV, DTH and cable TV, transmission of TV signals through Satellite and Transponders, working principles of HDTV, DBS-TV, IPTV and 3D-TV. Modern TV receiver with LCD, LED and Plasma displays.

Text Books :

1. Monochrome and colour Television , R R Gulathi, Wiley Eastern Ltd. (2007).
2. Introduction to Radar System, 3rd, M I Skolink, MGH. (2003).

References Books :

1. Television Engineering and Video System, R G Gupta, MGH
2. Television and Video Engineering , A M Dhake, MGH
3. Nathanson, F.E., “Radar Design Principles”, McGraw-Hill Inc.,
4. Principles, Technology, Applications, Prentice Hall
5. D.K.Barton, Modern radar systems analysis, Artech House,
6. Microwave and radar engineering, G.S.B. Rao, Pearson P.

MEMS AND NANOTECHNOLOGY

Unit-1

Introduction to Nanoelectronics: Top Down and Bottom UP Approach, Nanotechnology Potentials, Idea of band structure – Metals, Insulators and Semiconductors. Effect of crystal size on density of states and band gap, Electronic structure of nanoparticles. Nanostructured crystals, Size and dimensionality effects – Single electron tunneling – Applications – Superconductivity, Graphenes and CNT.

Unit-2

Nano Fabrication and Patterning Techniques: Si processing methods, Cleaning/etching, Oxidation, Gettering, doping, Epitaxy. CVD & MOCVD, Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD), Liquid Phase Techniques, Self assembly and catalysis. Etching: Wet and Dry, Nanolithography, Nanoimprinting, X- Ray Lithography(XRL), Particle beam lithography(e-beam, FIB, shadow mask evaporation),

Unit-3

General Characterization Techniques: X- Ray Diffraction studies – Bragg’s law – particle size – Scherrer’s equation, Infrared Spectroscopy of Semiconductors, Raman Spectroscopy, Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), NMR Spectroscopy, ESR Spectroscopy. photo electron spectroscopy(XPS)- SEM,TEM,STM, Atomic force microscopy(AFM).

Unit-4

Electrical, Magnetic, Mechanical and Optical Properties and Applications : Electronic and electrical properties -One dimensional systems-Metallic nanowires, Quantum dots -Two dimensional systems – Quantum wells. Magnetic properties -Transport in a magnetic field. Mechanical properties, Optical properties, Evolving interfaces of Nano in NanoBiology, Nano Sensors and Nanomedicines.

Unit-5

MEMS and Microsystems: Evolution of Micro Fabrication – Micro Systems and Microelectronics. Application of MEMS in Various Fields. Introduction – Substrate and Wafer, Active Substrate Material. Silicon as a substrate material, MEMS packaging. Case study on pressure sensor with packaging.

Text Books :

1. Nano Essentials, T Pradeep, Mc Graw Hill, (2008).
2. Nanotechnology-Enabled Sensors, Kourosh Kalantar-zadehand Benjamin Fry, Springer, (2007).

References Books :

1. Fundamental of Nanoelectronics, George W. Hanson, Pearson
2. Principal of Nanotechnology, G. A. Mansoori, Wiley
3. Mems and Micro Systems, Mahalik, TMH
4. MEMS, Gabriel, Wiley
5. MEMS, A.R. Jha, CRC
6. Nano Fabrication, CRC
7. MEMS & Microsystems, Design and Manufacture, Tai-Ran HSU, TMH

COMPUTER NETWORKS

Unit-1

Queuing Theory- Pure birth, Pure death & Birth-death processes, Mathematical models for M/M/1, M/M/∞, M/M/m, M/M/1/K and
M/M/m/m queues. Little’s formula.

Unit-2

Physical and Data link layer – OSI model & TCP/IP reference models, Line coding schemes, Packet & Circuit switching, Virtual circuit network, Framing, Simplex protocol, Simplex stop & wait protocol, Sliding window protocol, Go back N protocol, selective repeat,
HDLC, PPP

Unit-3

MAC Sublayer- Static & dynamic channel allocation, Multiple Access Protocols: ALOHA, slotted ALOHA, CSMA, Token Bus, Token Ring, FDDI IEEE standards 1002.3 & 1002.5, Virtual circuit network: frame relay & ATM frame and protocol architecture, Network connection devices: Hubs, Bridges, switches, Routers and Gateways

Unit-4

Network Layer- IPv4 & IPv6 addressing and datagram, Internetworking, Non-adaptive & Adaptive routing algorithms, Distance vector routing and Link state routing algorithms, OSPF and BGP

Unit-5

Transport and Application Layer- Client server paradigm, TCP frame format, Data traffic descriptors, QoS, Congestion and its control algorithms, Improving QoS by different queuing schemes, leaky bucket and token bucket implementation, Domain name, DNS in the internet, SMTP, FTP, WWW, HTTP.

Text Books :

1. Forouzan, “Data Communications and Networks”, 5th ed., Mcgraw-Hill, (2006).

References Books :

1. Tanenbaum, “Computer Network”, 5th ed., Pearson Education
2. Leon Garcia, Widjaja, “Communication Networks’, 2nd ed., Mcgraw-Hill
3. Stallings, “Data and Computer Communications”, 10th ed., Pearson Education
4. Bertsekas, Gallager, “Data Networks”, 2nd ed., PHI
5. Computer Networks, Dave, cengage learning
6. Fundamentals of Networking and Data Communications, White, cengage learning

OPERATING SYSTEMS

Unit-1

INTRODUCTION – History, Operating system services, types,  responsibilities, generations, LINUX, WINDOWS.
Unit-2

PROCESS MANAGEMENT- Operations on process, Process state, Scheduling, Criteria, scheduling algorithms, Evaluation, Synchronization, Semaphores, Monitors.
Unit-3

MEMORY MANAGEMENT- Swapping, Continuous memory allocation, Paging, Pure paging, Demand paging, Page-replacement algorithms, thrashing, Example-Pentium, Disk Scheduling.

Unit-4

INFORMATION MANAGEMENT- File and directory concept, Access methods, Protection, Free space management, Efficiency and performance, Access matrix, Capability-based systems, Program- threats, User authentication, Firewall.

Unit-5

DEAD LOCKS- System model, Dead lock characterization, Deadlock prevention, Avoidance, Detection, Recovery, Classic problems of synchronization.

Text Books :

1. Operating Systems, Dhamdhere, TMH, (2006).
2. Operating System:, Crowley, TMH, (1996).

References Books :

1. Modern Operating Systems, Andrew S Tanenbaum, PHI
2. Operating Systems:, Pal Chaudhury, PHI
3. Operating System Principles, Peter B. Galvin, Greg Gagne, John Wiley & Sons
4. Operating Systems, Gary Nutt, Pearson
5. Operating Systems: Internals And Design Principles, William Stallings, Pearson
6. Understanding Operating System , Flynn, cengage learning
7. Operating Systems: Principles, Design and Applications , cengage learning

MICRO CONTROLLERS & EMBEDDED  SYSTEMS

Unit-1

THE 8051 MICROCONTROLLER: Introduction, The 8051 microcontroller hardware, I/O pins, Ports, External memory, Counters and
Timers, Serial data.

Unit-2

8051 ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE PROGRAMMING: Addressing modes, External data moves, Stack,Push and Pop opcodes, Logical operations, Byte level and bit level logical operations. Arithmetic operations, Jump and call instructions, Interrupts & returns.
Unit-3

REAL TIME CONTROL: Interrupts, Multiple sources of interrupts, Non maskable sources of interrupts, Interrupt structure in 8051,Timers,Free running counter & Real Time control .

Unit-4

SYSTEM DESIGN: Serial I/O interface, Parallel I/O ports interface, Digital and Analog interfacing methods, LED array, keyboard, Printer, Flash memory interfacing.

Unit-5

INTRODUCTION TO EMBEDED SYSTEM: Application of Microcontrollers in interfacing, MCU based measuring instruments. Real Time Operating System for System Design,Multitasking System, Task Definition in a Multitasking System, Round Robin Scheduling, Full PreemptiveScheduling, Basic study and Features of Commercial RTOS : WINCE and Embedded Linux.

Text Books :

1. Kenneth J.Ayala, “The 8051 Micro controller”, Penram Interfacing Publishing, 1996.
2. Rajkamal, “Embedded Systems” TMH

References Books :

1. A Textbook of Microprocessors and Microcontrollers, R. Thegarajan, Scitech Publishers
2. The 8051 Microcontroller and Embedded Systems, Using Assembly and C, K Ayala & D. Gadre, Cengage Learning
3. The 8051 Microcontrollers & Embedded Systems,Mazidi, ,PHI
4. The 8051 Microcontroller, Ayala, cengage learning
5. The 8051 Microcontroller & Embedded Systems using Assembly and C, Ayala /Gadre cengage learning
6. A Textbook of Microprocessors and Microcontrollers, R.S. Kaler I. K. International Publishing House Pvt. Ltd.
7. Embedded Systems & Robots: Projects Using the 8051 Microcontroller , cengage learning
8. Embedded System Design Using C8051 , Huang , cengage learning
9. Embedded Microcomputer System Real Time Interfacing, Valvano , cengage learning

FABRICATION LAB

Experiments :

1. Design and fabricate the following Planar Transmission Lines:
• Stripline and microstrip lines
• Parallel coupled striplines and microstrip lines
• Slot lines and Coplanar lines
Measure their S-parameters and Characteristic impedance.

2. Design and Fabricate the following;
• 3-dB branchline coupler,
• backward wave coupler,
• Wilkinson power dividers
• Low pass filters
• band pass filters.
Measure their S-parameters & frequency responses.

3. Design, fabrication, and measurement of RF amplifier using microwave BJT.

INDUSTRIAL ECONOMICS & MANAGEMENT 

Experiments :

Unit-1

Framework of industrial economics – organizational forms and alternative motives of the firm, industrial efficiency, theory of profitability, market structure, principles of costing.

Unit-2

Approaches to industrial location analysis, Productivity analysis, Input-Output analysis, Concentration of economic power. New Industrial Policy – Critical analysis, Role of technology and entrepreneurship in industrial development.

Unit-3

Industrial project appraisal- classification of industries, industrial legislations in India, recent trends in MNCs, LPG, FDI &joint ventures, methods of project evaluation-NPV,CBA,IRR, break-even analysis.

Unit-4

Management – Principles of management, functions of management- planning,organizing,staffing,directing,controlling,co-ordinating,decision making

Unit-5

Emerging issues – Total quality management, JIT , quality circle, KANBAN, benchmarking, six sigma, quality management, ,ISO 9000, ISO 14000 , Customer relationship management ( CRM ) .

Text Books :

1. Subburay, Total quality management, TMH. (2011)
2. Barthwal R.R- industrial economics . wiley eastern limited

References Books :

1. Tirole jean – the theory of industrial organization . MIT PRESS
2. Ahluwalia I.J – industrial growth in india . Oxford university press
3. Divine P.J and R.M jones et Al- an introduction In industrial economics .George allen &Unwin limited London.
4. Peter F. drucker – principles and practice of management . Prentice hall ltd .

VLSI DESIGN & OPTICAL FIBER LAB

PART-I: Design and simulation of following VLSI circuits  using EDA Tools (Software) Schematic design and make Device Level Layout of following circuits.

1. Design 2-input NAND, NOR and XOR using CMOS logic. Obtain its static and dynamic analysis for speed and power dissipation.
2. Design 2X1 and 4X1 Multiplexer using Transmission Gate (TG. Obtain its static and dynamic analysis for speed and power dissipation.
3. Design a SR-latch and D-latch using CMOS. Obtain its static and dynamic analysis for speed and power dissipation.
4. Design a SRAM and DRAM Memory Cell. Obtain its static and dynamic analysis for speed and power dissipation.

PART-II Design and simulation of following VLSI circuits using VHDL and then burn/implement the circuits on FPGA kit for real input.

5. Design a 4- bit parallel Adder. Obtain its number of gates, area, and speed and power dissipation.
6. Design a 4- bit Serial in-serial out shift register. Obtain its number of gates, area, and speed and power dissipation.
7. Design a 4 bit binary synchronous counter. Obtain its number of gates, area, and speed and power dissipation.

PART-III. To perform following experiments based on Fiber Optic Trainer.

8. To set up Fiber Optic Analog link.
9. To set up fiber Optic Digital link.
10. Measurement of Propagation loss and numerical aperture.
11. Characterization (VI Characteristics) of laser diode and light emitting diode.

RTU Syllabus Electronics And Communication Engineering 7th Semester

ANTENNAS & WAVE PROPAGATION

Unit-1

ANTENNA FUNDAMENTALS – Review of Electromagnetic theory. Short elementary dipole and its fields. Basic antenna parameters – Radiation pattern, beamwidth, beam solid angle, directivity, efficiency, gain, radiation intensity, radiation resistance, input impedance and polarization. Receiving antenna- Reciprocity, effective length and aperture, antenna temperature.

Unit-2

ANTENNA ARRAYS – Point source, Array of two isotropic point sources. Uniform array of N point sources and array factor –Examples of 4 element broadside and endfire arrays. N-element linear array of elementary dipoles and principle of pattern multiplication. Two element array of elementary dipoles – Excitation with different relative phase shift and for different spacing.

Unit-3

DIFFERENT TYPES OF ANTENNAS – Thin linear antenna and thin half- wave dipole. V- and Rhombic antennas. Monopole antenna, Small loop antenna, Folded dipole and Yagi-Uda antenna. Broadband antennas – Broadband basics, log-periodic dipole array. Reflector antennas –Flat sheet, corner and parabolic reflector antennas. Slot, Horn and Lens antennas, Helical antennas. Microstrip patch antennas- Rectangular patch antenna, Two- element microstrip patch. Antenna Measurements – Antenna radiation pattern, gain, directivity and polarization.

Unit-4

GROUND WAVE PROPAGATION – Mechanism of radio wave propagation. Theory of ground reflection- Plane earth reflection, reflection factors for horizontal and vertical polarizations. Refraction and diffraction of radio waves. Space and surface waves. Tropospheric propagation, duct propagation and tropospheric scattering.

Unit-5

IONOSPHERIC PROPAGATION: Various ionospheric layers, Electrical properties of the ionosphere and their effects on wave propagation. Critical frequency, virtual height, skip distance, maximum usable frequency. Multiple hop transmission. Effect of earth’s magnetic field and Faraday rotation. Solar activity and meteorological conditions on wave propagation.

Text Books :

1. Sisir. Das and A. Das, Antenna and wave propagation, Tata McGraw-Hill Education Pvt. Ltd, (2013).
2. A.R. Harish and M. Sachidananda, Antennas and Wave Propagation, Oxford Univ. Press, Edition (2011).

References Books :

1. J.D. Kraus, Antennas, Tata McGraw-Hill, 2nd Edition,
2. E.C. Jordan and K.G. Balmain, Electromagnetic Waves and Radiating Systems, Prentice- Hall of India, 2nd Edition,
3. T. Milligan, Microstrip Antenna Design, Wiley,
4. J.D. Kraus and R.J. Marhefka, Antennas for All Applications, Tata McGraw-Hill, Edition
5. R. Chatterjee, Antenna Theory and Practice,Wiley Eastern Ltd.,
6. Balanis Constantine A, Antenna theory, Analysis and design, 3rd edition, A John Wiley
& Sons Inc. Publication
7. Collin R. E. And F. J. Zucker, Antenna Theory: Part I, McGraw-Hill, New York
8. Collin R. E. And F. J. Zucker, Antenna Theory: Part II, McGraw-Hill, New York
9. Ramesh Garg, P. Bhartia, Inder Bahl, and A Ittipiboon, Microstrip Antenna Design Hand, Artech House, Inc.

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING

Unit-1

SAMPLING – Discrete time processing of Continuous-time signals, continuous time processing of discrete-time signals, Changing the sampling rate using discrete-time processing.

Unit-2

TRANSFORM ANALYSIS OF LTI SYSTEMS – Introduction, The frequency response of LTI systems, System functions for systems characterized by LCCD (Linear Constant Coefficient Difference) equations, All-pass system, Minimum-Phase systems, Linear systems with linear phase.

Unit-3

STRUCTURES FOR DISCRETE-TIME SYSTEMS- Block diagram and signal flow graph representation of LCCD equations, Basic structures for IIR and FIR systems, Transposed forms.

Unit-4

FILTER DESIGN TECHNIQUES – Introduction, Analog filter Design: Butterworth & Chebyshev, IIR filter design by impulse invariance & Bilinear transformation, Design of FIR filters by Windowing: Rectangular, Hanning, Hamming & Kaiser.

Unit-5

DFT, FFT- The Discrete Fourier transform (DFT), Properties of the DFT, Linear Convolution using DFT, Efficient computation of the DFT: Decimation–in-Time and Decimation- in frequency FFT Algorithms.

Text Books :

1. Proakis, Manolakis, “Digital Signal Processing: Principals, Algorithms And Applications”, 4th ed., Pearson Education. (2006)
2. Oppenheim, Schafer, “Discrete Time Signal Processing”, 3rd ed. , PHI (2010)

References Books :

1. Digital Signal Processing: A Modern Introduction, Ambardar, cengage learning
2. Introduction to Digital Signal Processing using MATLAB, Schilling
3 Sanjit K Mitra, “Digital Signal Processing”, 4th ed., TMH
4 Tan, Jiang, “Digital Signal Processing: Fundamentals and Applications”,2nd ed., Elsevier
5 Ifeachor, Jervis, “Digital Signal Processing”, 2nd ed., Pearson Education

DIGITAL IMAGE  PROCESSING

Unit-1

DIGITAL IMAGE FUNDAMENTALS: Image sensing and acquisition, Image sampling and quantization, Representing digital images, Spatial and gray-level resolution, Spatial operations, Vector & matrix operations, Zooming and Shrinking of digital images. RGB and HSI Color models.

Unit-2

BASIC IMAGE OPERATIONS: Intensity transformation functions, Histogram equalization, Spatial filtering for image smoothing, Image sharpening by first and second order derivatives, Image smoothing and sharpening using frequency domain filters.

Unit-3

IMAGE RESTORATION: Image restoration model, Noise Models, Spatial and frequency properties of noise, noise probability density functions, Noise only- spatial filter, Mean, order Statistic and adaptive filters, Concepts of inverse and Wiener filtering.

Unit-4

MORPHOLOGICAL IMAGE PROCESSING: Erosion and Dilation, Opening and closing, morphological algorithms for Boundary extraction, thinning, pruning, smoothing and thickening.

Unit-5

IMAGE SEGMENTATION AND COMPRESSION: Edge based segmentation, Edge detection masks, Gradient operators, Thresholding, Region growing, Watershed transform, Fundamentals of image compression; Loss-less compression techniques; Lossy compression techniques, compression standards.

Text Books :

1. Gonzalez, Woods and Eddins, “Digital Image Processing”, 3rd ed. , Pearson Education (2010)
2. Anil K Jain, “Fundamentals of Digital Image Processing”, 4th ed., Prentice Hall (2010)

References Books :

1 Tamal Bose, “Digital Signal and Image Processing”, ”, 3rd ed. , John Wiley
2 Sonaka,Hlavac and Boyle, “Image Processing, Analysis and Machine Vision”, 3rd ed. , Cengage Learning
3 Pratt, “Digital Image Processing”, 4th ed. , John Wiley
4. Image Processing, Analysis, and Machine Vision, Sonka, cengage learning

WIRELESS COMMUNICATION

Unit-1

Spread Spectrum Modulation Techniques – Concept of spread spectrum, system processing gain, Spread Spectrum signals: Direct-sequence spread spectrum signals, Frequency-hopped spread spectrum signals, Code-division multiplexing, Spreading codes.

Unit-2

Wireless Microwave Communication- Link Engineering, Frequency planning, Free space loss, Fresnel zone clearance, bending of radio beam, Effective earth radius, Fundamentals of fading, types and effects, Multipath channels; parameters, measurements, Building blocks of Transmitter & Receiver.

Unit-3

Multiple Access Techniques and Networks – FDMA, TDMA and CDMA with reference to mobile radio and satellite systems. TDMA based networks, OFDM and its characteristics, Packet radio multiple access techniques. CDMA based networks: Architecture, Air interface, Call processing, power control, Rake receiver concept and performance of CDMA system.

Unit-4

Cellular Wireless Networks-, GSM: Introduction, overview of the GSM systems, GSM codec, channel coding and interleaving, radio like control. Cordless systems and WLL, Mobile IP, Wireless access protocol. Wireless LAN’s: Technology, IEEE 1002.11 standards, Broadband Wireless 1002.16, Blue tooth, Wi-Fi, Wi- Max, Zigbee & RFID technology.

Unit-5

Satellite Communication – Elements of satellite communication: Frequency bands, Transmission and Multiple access. Satellite orbit and description- orbital period and velocity, effects of orbital inclination, Azimuth and elevation, Coverage angle and slant range, Satellite Link: basic link design and analysis, Geostationary orbit, Satellite subsystems. Earth Station antenna, high-power amplifier, low-noise amplifier, up converter, down converter, monitoring and control, reliability.

Text Books :

1. William Stallings, Wireless Communication and Networks, Pearson Education (2013)
2. Rappaport, T.S., Wireless Communications, Pearson Education (2013)

References Books :

1. Gottapu Sasibhushana Rao, Mobile Cellular Communications, Pearson Education
2.Singal, T.L, Wireless Communication, Tata McGraw Hill
3.Vijay Kr. Garg, Wireless Communications and Networking, Morgan Kaufmann, Elsevier
4. Blake, Wireless Communication Technology, Cengage Learning
5. W.C.Y. Lee , Mobile Cellular Telecommunications , Tata McGraw Hill
6. Wireless Communications and Networking, Price, TMH
7. Pratt, Bostain, Satellite Communications, Wiley India
8. Mark Zhuang, Wireless Communications and Networking, Prentice Hall of India
9. Simon Haykin, Modern Wireless Communications, Pearson Education
10. Price, Fundamentals of Wireless Networking, Tata McGraw Hill

VLSI DESIGN

Unit-1

INTRODUCTION TO MOSFET: – Basic MOS transistors, Enhancement Mode transistor action, Depletion Mode transistor action, NMOS and CMOS fabrication. Aspects of threshold voltage, threshold voltage with body effect. Ids versus Vds relationship, channel length modulation. Transistor Trans-conductance gm. MOS transistor circuit Model, Model parameter (oxide and junction capacitor, channel resistance) variation with scaling and biasing. High order effects (i.e. subthreshold conduction, hot electron effect, narrow channel effect and punch through effect.

Unit-2

CMOS LOGIC CIRCUITS- nMOS inverter (resistive and active load), Pull up to Pull-down ratio for a NMOS Inverter and CMOS Inverter (Bn/Bp), , determination of inverter parameter (VIL, VIH VOL VOH ) and Noise Margin. Speed and power dissipation analysis of CMOS inverter. Combinational Logic, NAND Gate, NOR gate, XOR gate, Compound Gates, 2 input CMOS Multiplexer, Memory latches and registers, Transmission Gate, estimation of Gate delays, Power dissipation and Transistor sizing.

Unit-3

Basic physical design of simple Gates and Layout issues. Layout issues for CMOS inverter, Layout for NAND, NOR and Complex Logic gates, Layout of TG, Layout optimization using Eular path. DRC rules for layout and issues of interconnects, Latch up problem.

Unit-4

Dynamic CMOS circuits: Clocked CMOS (C2MOS) logic, DOMINO logic, NORA logic, NP(ZIPPER) logic, PE(pre-charge and Evaluation) Logic. Basic Memory circuits, SRAM and DRAM.

Unit-5

Physical Design: Introduction to ECAD tools for first and back end design of VLSI circuits. Custom /ASIC design, Design using FPGA and VHDL. VHDL Code for simple Logic gates, flip-flops, shift registers.

Text Books :

1. CMO S DIGITAL INTEGRATED CIRCUITS Analysis and Design. SUNG-MO (STEVE) ANG, YUSUF LEBLEBIGI, McGraw Hill (2008)

References Books :

1. N.Weste and K. Eshraghian, Principles of CMOS VLSI, 2e, Pearson Education.
2. VLSI Design , P P Sahu , , McGraw.
3. VLSI Design, D.P. Das, Oxford.
4. Chip Design for Submicron VLSI: CMOS Layout & Simulation, Uyemura, cengage learning

ADVANCED MICROPROCESSORS

Unit-1

The 8086 Microprocessor Family: 8086 ARCHITECTURE- Hardware
specifications, Pins and signals, Internal data operations and Registers, Minimum and maximum mode, System Bus Timing, Linking and execution of Programs

Unit-2

Software & Instruction Set: Assembly language programming: addressing mode and instructions of 8086, Strings, Procedures and Macros, 8086 interrupts. Assembler Directives and operators.

Unit-3

Analog Interfacing: A/D and D/A converter interfacing, keyboard and display interfacing, RS 232 & IEEE 488 communication standards. An 8086 based Process Control Systems

Unit-4

Digital Interfacing: Programmable parallel ports, Interfacing microprocessor to keyboard and alphanumeric displays, Memory interfacing and Decoding , DMA controller.

Unit-5

Multiprocessor Configurations: – Multiuser / Multi tasking operating system concepts, 8086 based Multiprocessor systems. Introduction and basic features of 286, 386, 486 & Pentium processors.

Text Books :

1. A Nagoor Kani “Microprocessors and Microcontrollers” Mc Graw Hill Education 2ed. (2012)
2. Douglas V. Hall “Microprocessors and Interfacing Programming and Hardware” Tata Mc Graw Hill.(2000)

References Books :

1. A. Ray & K. Bhurchandi. “Advanced Microprocessors and Peripherals. Tata Mc Graw Hill,
2. A Nagoor Kani “Microprocessors and Microcontrollers” Mc Graw Hill Education 2ed.
3. Introduction to Microprocessors, A. P. Mathur Mc Graw Hill
4. The Intel Family of Microprocessors: Hardware and Software Principles and Applications, Antonakos, cengage learning
5. The 8086 Microprocessor: Programming & Interfacing the PC, Ayala, cengage learning

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND EXPERT SYSTEMS

Unit-1

Introduction to Artificial Intelligence: Intelligent Agents, State Space Search, Uninformed Search, Informed Search, Two
Players Games, Constraint Satisfaction Problems.

Unit-5

Knowledge Representation: Knowledge Representation And Logic, Interface in Propositional Logic, First Order Logic, Reasoning Using First Order Logic, Resolution in FOPL

Unit-3

KNOWLEDGE ORGANIZATION: Rule based System, Semantic Net, Reasoning in Semantic Net Frames, Planning

Unit-4

KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS: Rule Based Expert System, Reasoning with Uncertainty, Fuzzy Reasoning

Unit-5

KNOWLEDGE ACQUISITION: Introduction to Learning, Rule Induction and Decision Trees, Learning Using neural Networks, Probabilistic Learning Natural Language Processing

Text Books :

1. Elaine Rich and Kevin Knight, Artificial Intelligence 3/e, TMH (1991)
2. PADHY: Artificial Intelligence & Intelligent Systems, Oxford(2005)

References Books :

1. James A Anderson, An introduction to Neural Networks. Bradford Books
2. Dan. W Patterson, Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems,PHI
3. Kumar Satish, “Neural Networks” Tata Mc Graw Hill
4. S. Rajsekaran & G.A. Vijayalakshmi Pai, “Neural Networks,Fuzzy Logic and Genetic Algorithm:Synthesis and Applications” Prentice Hall of India.
5. Siman Haykin,”Neural Netowrks”Prentice Hall of India
6. Artificial Intelligence, Kaushik, cengage learning

VHDL

Unit-1

INTRODUCTION:VHDL/PLD Design Methodology, Advantages, Requirement Analysis and specification, VHDL description, Verification Using simulations, Functional Simulation, Logic Synthesis, Place and route and timing Simulation Fundamental & history of various hardware description language, VHDL for Synthesis V/s Simulation, Design flow of ASICs and standard logic circuits. Implementation Details for SPLDs, CPLDs and FPGAs.

Unit-2

LANGUAGE FUNDAMENTALS: Entities, Architectures and coding Styles, Signals and Data types, Packages, Dataflow, Structural, Behavioral and RTL Style of Combinational design, Event- Driven Simulation: Simulation Approaches, Elaboration Signal Drivers Simulator Kernel process, Signals verses Variables.

Unit-3

COMBINATIONAL and SEQUENCIAL CIRCUITS BUILDING BLOCKS: Multiplexer, Synthesis using Shannon’s expansions, Decoders, encoders, Code Converters, VHDL Code for Combinational Circuits. VHDL code for Flip-Flops, shift registers, Counters.

Unit-4

SYNCHRONOUS/ ASYNCHRONOUS SEQUENCIAL CIRCUITS: Mealy & Moore type FSMs, VHDL Code for Mealy & Moore Machines, VHDL Codes for Serial Adder, Vending Machine.

Unit-5

DIGITAL SYSTEM DESIGN: Building Block circuits, Memory organization,
SRAM, Design examples of divider, Multiplier, Shifting & Sorting Operations, Clock Synchronization, CPU organization and design concepts.

Text Books :

1. Digital Logic with VHDL Design, Brown, TMH.(2007)
2. VHDL for Engineers, Short, Pearson. (2011)

References Books :

1. VHDL (Text BOOK Binding), Douglas L. Perry, TMH
2. VHDL , A design oriented Approach, S S Limaye, TMH
3. VHDL: Programming By Example, Douglas Perry, Oxford
4. The Designer’s Guide To VHDL, Peter J. Ashenden, Oxford
5. Circuit Design With VHDL , By Volnei A Pedroni, PHI
6. VHDL Bascis to programming, Gaganpreet Kaurt, Pearson
7. Digital System Design Using VHDL, cengage learning
8. HDL Programming Fundamentals VHDL & VERILOG. Botros. cengage learning

SIGNAL AND IMAGE  PROCESSING LAB

Experiments :

1. To simulate the transmitter and receiver for BPSK
2. To design and simulate FIR digital filter (LP/HP).
3. To design and simulate IIR digital filter (LP/HP).
4. Reading and displaying Gray/ Colour images of different formats
5. RGB/HSI conversions in an image, Image arithmetic operations.
6. Image Histogram and histogram equalization
7. Image filtering in Spatial and frequency domain
8. Morphological operations in analyzing image structures
9. Thresholding-based image segmentation
10. Study of image compression

WIRELESS COMMUNICATION LAB

Experiments :

1.  Measurement of antenna input characteristics: Measure the input return loss versus frequency in the operating band for (i) Half wave dipole (printed dipole/strip dipole), (ii) Folded dipole and (ii) Log-periodic antenna.

2. Measurement of radiation characteristics of a (i) Half wave dipole (printed dipole/strip
dipole), and (ii) Printed Yagi antenna -. Measure radiation patterns in the two principal planes and plot on polar chart. Determine beam width, directivity and antenna efficiency.

3. Measurement of antenna gain using absolute gain and relative gain measurements:
• Measure gain of Bi-quad antenna using absolute gain measurements.
• Measure gain of log-periodic antenna and printed slot antenna using relative gain measurements.

4. Circular polarization measurements on helical antenna.
5.  Antenna array theory demonstration using single EM coupled rectangular patch, 2×1 EM coupled and 2×2 EM coupled rectangular patch antennas.
6.  Communication link budget calculations- Friis formula and demonstration with transmit and receive antenna setup.
7.  Radar Trainer: Working of Doppler radar, velocity of moving object, time and frequency measurement and other applications.
8. To perform Modulation, Demodulation and BER measurement using CDMA – DSSS Trainer.
9. To establish analog/digital communication link and transmit & receive three signals (audio, video, tone) simultaneously using Satellite Communication Trainer.
10. To study GPS Receiver, establishing link between GPS satellite & GPS trainer and measure of latitude & longitude

IC TECHNOLOGY

Unit-1

INTRODUCTION TO IC TECHNOLOGY- Semiconductor Substrate- Crystal defects, Electronic Grade Silicon, Czochralski Growth, Float Zone Growth, Characterization & evaluation of Crystals; Wafer Preparation- Silicon Shaping, Etching and Polishing, Chemical cleaning.

Unit-2

DIFFUSION & OXIDATION – Ficks diffusion Equation in One Dimension, Atomic model, Analytic Solution of Ficks Law, correction to simple theory, Diffusion in SiO2. Ion Implantation and Ion Implantation Systems. Oxidation Growth mechanism and Deal-Grove Model of oxidation, Linear and Parabolic Rate co-efficient, Structure of SiO2, Oxidation techniques and system, Oxide properties.

Unit-3

CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION AND EPITAXIAL LAYER GROWTH- CVD for deposition of dielectric and polysilicon thick Layer – a simple CVD system, Chemical equilibrium and the law of mass action, Introduction to atmospheric CVD of dielectric, low pressure CVD of dielectric and semiconductor. Epitaxy-Vapour Phase Expitaxy, Defects in Epitaxial growth, Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition, Molecular beam epitaxy.

Unit-4

PATTERN TRANSFER & ETCHING – Introduction to photo/optical lithography, Contact/ proximity printers Projection printers, Mask generation, photo resists. Dry & Wet etching, methods for anisotropic etching, Plasma etching, Reaction ion etching (RIE).

Unit-5

VLSI PROCESS INTEGRATION- Junction and Oxide Isolation, LOCOS methods, Trench Isolation, SOI; Metallization, Planarization. Fundamental consideration for IC Processing, NMOS IC Technology, CMOS IC Technology, Bipolar IC Technology. Fault diagnosis and characterization techniques.

Text Books :

1. 1. S.M. Sze (Ed), VLSI Technology, 2nd Edition, McGraw Hill (1988).

References Books :

1 S.K. Ghandhi, VLSI Fabrication Principles, John Wiley Inc., New York,
2 IC Technology, Gouranga Bose, McGraw Hill
3 C.Y. Chang and S.M.Sze (Ed),ULSI Technology, McGraw Hill Companies Inc

RTU Syllabus Electronics And Communication Engineering 6th Semester

MICROWAVE ENGINEERING–II

Unit-1

IMPEDANCE TRANSFORMATION AND MATCHING : Lumped elements for MICs and MMICs- printed inductors, capacitors and resonant elements. The Smith chart- combined impedance-admittance chart. Impedance matching with lumped elements (L networks) and Smith chart solutions. Single stub tuning in microstrip circuits using shunt stub. Single section quarter-wave transformer.

Unit-2

MICROWAVE DIODES AND DIODE CIRCUITS: Detector Diodes – Silicon crystal diode and Schottky diode. V-I characteristic of detector diode, basic operation of detection and mixing, single diode mixer circuit. PIN diode – Equivalent circuit and characteristics of PIN diode, single-pole PIN diode switches and single bit phase shifters. Varactor diode- Device characteristics and circuit applications. Gunn diode- Gunn effect, principle of operation and characteristics, typical oscillator circuit using Gunn diode. IMPATT diode- Characteristics, negative resistance, power output and efficiency.

Unit-3

MICROWAVE TRANSISTORS AND CIRCUITS : Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJTs) – Geometry of silicon bipolar transistor, DC biasing, microwave equivalent circuit and characteristics. Microwave Field Effect Transistors (FETs) – Physical structure and principle of operation of JFET, MOSFET and MESFET, characteristics, comparison of FET devices and circuit applications. Single stage FET amplifier – Block schematic of a single stage FET amplifier circuit, Stability considerations, analysis and derivation of expression for transducer gain with unilateral transistor, design criteria for maximum gain.

Unit-4

Klystrons- Limitations of conventional vacuum tubes. Reflex klystron – Basic schematic, mechanism of operation, modes of oscillation and modulation. Velocity modulation and electron bunching (analytical treatment),

Magnetrons- Types of magnetron. Basic structure of magnetron, analysis, resonant modes in magnetron, operation, mechanism of oscillations, practical consideration of cavity magnetron. Introduction to coaxial, frequency angle and voltage tunable magnetrons.

Unit-5

Travelling Wave Tube Amplifier- Basic schematic of helix type TWT tube. Introduction to CW power pulsed dual mode TWT. TWT amplifier operational characteristics. Applications of TWT. Crossed- field amplifier.

Text Books :

1. A. Das and S. Das, Microwave Engineering, Tata McGraw-Hill, (2000).
2. S.Y.Liao, Microwave devices and circuits, Prentice Hall, 2nd Edition (1985).

References Books :

1. B. Bhat and S. K. Koul, Stripline-like Transmission Lines for Microwave Integrated Circuits, Wiley Eastern Ltd.,
2. T. C. Edwards, Foundations for Microstrip Circuit Design, John Wiley & Sons,.
3. K. C. Gupta, R. Garg, I. Bahl and P. Bhartia, Microstrip Lines and Slotlines, Second Edition, Artech House
4. K.C Gupta, Microwaves, Wiley Eastern Ltd.
5. P.A. Rizzi, Microwave Engineering- Passive Circuits, Prentice Hall,.
6. D. M. Pozar, Microwave Engineering, John Wiley & Sons,. (Use the latest version)
7.  Dennis Roddy, Microwave Technology, Prentice-Hall,
8. Roy Mitra, Microwave semiconductor devices, PHI,
9. Robert E. Collin, Foundations for microwave engineering 2ed
10. Microwave and Radar Engineering, G.S.B. Rao, Pearson

MICROPROCESSORS

Unit-1

INTRODUCTION: The 8085 architecture, memory, I/O Devices, Logic devices for interfacing, Memory, Interfacing, addressing modes, Instructions, programming techniques.

Unit-2

INTRODUCTION TO 8085 INSTRUCTIONS: Looping, counting and Indexing, Data Transfer and Arithmetic instructions, Counters and Time Displays, stacks & subroutines, conditional call and return instructions.

Unit-3

Code Conversion, BCD Arithmetic and 16 Bit Data Operations additional data transfer & 16 bit arithmetic Instructions, arithmetic operations related to memory counter and time delays.

Unit-4

Interrupts: The 8085 Interrupt, vectored interrupts, additional I/Oconcepts and processes, serial I/O & data communication.

Unit-5

General purpose programming peripheral devices: 8255 Programmable peripheral interface, Interfacing keyboard and Seven Segment display. The 8254 programmable Interval timer, the 8259 programmable Interrupt controller.8257 DMA controller.

Text Books :

1. Microprocessors Architecture, Programming &Application, Ramesh S. Gaonkar, (2000)
2. A Textbook of Microprocessors and Microcontrollers, R.S. Kaler I.K International Publishing House Pvt. Ltd.

References Books :

1.Introduction to Microprocessors, A.P. Mathur, Mc Graw Hill

INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS

Unit-1

SEMICONDUCTOR POWER DEVICES – Basic characteristics & working of Power Diodes, Diac, SCR, Triac, Power Transistor, MOSFETs, IGBT, and GTO.

Unit-2

RECTIFIERS & INVERTERS – Working principles of single and three phase bridge rectifiers, Voltage and current source inverters.

Unit-3

POWER SUPPLIES: Principle of operation of choppers. Step up, Step down and reversible choppers. High frequency electronic ballast, Switch Mode Power Supply: Fly back converter, forward/buck converter, Boost converter and buck-boost converter. Uninterruptible Power Supply.

Unit-4

MOTOR CONTROL: Introduction to speed control of DC motors using phase controlled converters and choppers, Basic idea of speed control of three phase induction motors using voltage and frequency control methods.

Unit-5

Stepper Motors: Variable reluctance, Permanent magnet and hybrid stepper motors. Induction and dielectric heating control.

Text Books :

1. Power Electronics Principles & Applications, Joseph Vithayathil, TMH , (2010).
2. Power Eletronics, Ravish Singh, TMH, (2012).

References Books :

1. Industrial Electronics And Control, Ttti, TMH
2. Power Electronics: Converters Applications., Mohan, Robbins, Wiley
3. Power Electronics, Moorthi, Oxford
4. Elements Of Power Electronics, Krein, Oxford
5. Power Electronics, R.S.Murthy, Pearson
6. Power Electronics: Circuits, Devices And Applications

DIGITAL COMMUNICATION

Unit-1

Digital Transmission Of Analog Signals: Uniform and Non-uniform quantization. PCM and delta modulation, Signal to quantization noise ratio in PCM and delta modulation. DPCM, ADM, T1 Carrier System, Error probability in PCM system.

Unit-2

Base Band Transmission: Line coding (RZ, NRZ): Polar, Bipolar, Manchester, AMI. Inter symbol interference, Pulse shaping, Nyquist criterion, Raised cosine spectrum. Optimum detection, Matched filter.\

Unit-3

Digital Modulation Techniques: Geometric interpretation of signals and Orthogonalization. ASK, BPSK, BFSK, QPSK, M-ary PSK, MSK and GMSK modulation techniques and Coherent detection of these techniques. Signal constellation and calculation of error probabilities.

Unit-4

Information Theory: Measure of Information, Average Information, Entropy, Information rate, Increase in Average information per bit by coding, Shannon’s Theorem and Shannon’s bound, Capacity of a Gaussian Channel, BW-S/N trade off.

Unit-5

Source & Error Control Coding: Coding and decoding of Information Source coding, Entropy coding, Hamming code, Single Parity- Bit Code, Linear Block code, Cyclic code & Convolutional code.

Text Books :

1. Digital Communications Systems, P RamaKrishna Rao, Mc Graw Hill
2. Digital Communications Systems, Simon Haykins, Wiley

References Books :

1. Digital Communications: Fundamentals and Applications, Bernard Sklar, Pearson Education
2. Analog and Digital Communication, Schum Series, TMH
3. Digital & Analog Communication Systems, Leon W. Couch, Pearson
4. Analog & Digital Communication Systems, Singal, TMH
5. An Introduction To Analog & Digital Communications, Haykins, Wiley
6. Digital And Analog Communication Systems, Shanmugam, Wiley
7. Proakis J. G. and Salehi M., “Communication Systems Engineering”, Pearson Education
8. Electronic Communication Systems-, Kennedy Devis, TMH

CONTROL SYSTEM

Unit-1

CONTROL SYSTEM AND THEIR REPRESENTATION: Terminology and basic structure of control system, Open loop and Closed loop systems, servomechanism, regulatory system, analogous systems. Physical Systems and their models, Electromechanical systems, electrical analogy of physical systems.
Transfer function, Block diagram representation of physical systems, Block diagram algebra, Signal Flow graph and Mason’s formula.

Unit-2

TIME RESPONSE: Types of test inputs, Response of first and second order system, Time domain specifications, Error coefficients, generalized error series.
STABILITY: Concepts of stability, location of roots in s-plane for stability, asymptotic stability and relative stability, Routh-Hurwitz stability criterion.

Unit-3

ROOT LOCUS: Root locus plot, Properties of Root loci and applications, Stability range from the loci. Determination of roots of the closed loop system, Effect of pole zero addition.
NYQUIST PLOTS: Polar plots, Nyquist plots and Nyquist stability criterion.

Unit-4

BODE PLOTS: Concepts of Gain margin and phase margin, Bode plots. Frequency-domain specifications M and N loci ,Nichols chart.

Unit-5

CONTROLLERS: Introduction to PID and Lag-lead type Controllers.
STATE VARIABLE ANALYSIS: Concepts of state, state variable and state model. State variable models for LTI systems. Canonical representations, Transfer function to state-space and vice-versa. Solution to state equations. Concepts of controllability & observability.
COMPENSATION DESIGN: compensation design using frequency domain techniques.

Text Books :

1. Modern control Engineering, Ogata, Pearson.(2009)
2. Nise’s Control System Engineering, Rajeev Gupta, Wiley (2011)

References Books :

1. Control Systems: Principles & Design, M. Gopal, TMH
2. Automatic Control System,B. C. Kuo,Wiley
3. Singh & Janardhanan – Modern control engineering, Cengage learning
4. Control Systems,Srivastava,TMH
5. Systems and Control – Stanislawhizak, Oxford
6. Control System Engineering,S. K. Bhattacharya,Pearson
7. Control Systems: Theory And Applications,Ghosh,Pearson
8. Manik – Control systems, Cengage learning

NEURAL NETWORKS

Unit-1

NEUROPHYSIOLOGY: Introduction: Elementary neurophysiology – From neurons to ANNs – Neuron model McCulloch-Pitts model, Hebbian Hypothesis; limitations of single-layered neural networks.

Unit-2

LINEAR NETWORKS: Adaline-the adaptive linear element. Linear regression. The Wiener-Hopf equation. The Least-Mean-Square (Widrow-Hoff) learning algorithm. Method of steepest descent. Adaline as a linear adaptive filter. A sequential regression algorithm.

Unit-3

MULTI-LAYER FEEDFORWARD NEURAL NETWORKS: Multi- Layer Perceptrons. Supervised Learning. Approximation and interpolation of functions. Back-Propagation Learning law. Fast training algorithms. Applications of multilayer perceptrons: Image coding, Paint- quality inspection, Nettalk.
SELF-ORGANISING SYSTEMS: Unsupervised Learning. Local learning laws. Generalised Hebbian Algorithm. The Oja’s and Sanger’s rules. Principal component analysis-Karhunen-Loeve transform.

Unit-4

COMPETITIVE LEARNING: MinNet and MaxNet networks. Clustering. Learning Vector Quantisation. Codebooks. Application in data compression.
SELF-ORGANISING FEATURE MAPS: Kohonen networks.RADIAL-BASIS FUNCTION NETWORKS: Radial-Basis function (RBF) networks and their application in function interpolation, approximation and modelling probability distributions. RECURRENT NETWORKS: Hopfield networks.

Unit-5

APPLICATIONS OF NEURAL NETWORKS: Pattern classification, Associative memories, Optimization, Applications in Image Processing- Iris, finger print & face, Applications in decision making, TSP Problem.

Text Books :

1. Jacek M. Zurada, Introduction to artificial neural systems, Jaico Publ. House, (1994).
2. S.N. Sivanandam, S. Sumathi and S.N. Deepa, Introduction to Neural Networks using MATLAB 6.0, Tata McGraw-Hill, (2006).

References Books :

1. Artificial Neural Network,Robert Schalloff,TMH
2. Fundamental Of Neural Network Architecture And Application,Laurene V. Fausett,Pearson
3. Neural Network Algorithm And Programing Tech,James A Freeman,Pearson
4. Neural N/W For Pattern Recognition,Cristopher, M.Bhishop,Oxford
5. Fuzzy Neuro Approach To Agent Application,Lee ,Raymond S.T.,New Age
6. Fuzzy Logic and Neural Networks: Basic Concept And Application,A Lavala, Chemakesava R.,New Age
7. Neural Network Design w/CD, Hagan, Cengage Learning

PARALLEL COMPUTATION & ARCHITECTURE

Unit-1

Overview Of Parallel Processing: Constraints of conventional architecture, Parallelism in uniprocessor system, Architectural Classification.
Applications of parallel processing, Sorting networks, PRAM models, interconnection network, memory consistency models, shared memory multiprocessors.

Unit-2

Hardware taxonomy: Flynn’s classification, Handler’s classification, Software taxonomy, Kung’s taxonomy, SPMD, Basic Algorithms Fast Fourier Transform, Linear System Solution etc.

Unit-3

Instruction level Parallelism and Thread Level Parallelism, Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing (EPIC) Architecture, Principles of scalable performance: Performance Metrics and Measures, Speedup Performance Laws efficiency utilization, overheads.

Unit-4

Vector and Array Processor Basic vector architecture, Issues in Vector Processing, Vector performance modeling, SIMD Computer Organization Masking and Data network mechanism. Inter PE Communication, Interconnection networks of SIMD, Static V s
Dynamic network, cube hyper cube and Mesh Interconnection network, Parallel Algorithms For Array Processors.

Unit-5

Multiprocessor Architecture Loosely and Tightly coupled multiprocessors, Processor characteristics of multiprocessors, Inter Processor communication network, Time shared bus, Crossbar switch.

Text Books :

1. V.Rajaraman, L Sivaram Murthy, “Parallel Computers”, PID. (2004)
2. William Stallings, “Computer Organization and Architecture, Designing for performancePrentice Hall, Sixth edition.(2007)

References Books :

1. Kai Hwang, Scalable Parallel Computing.
2. Harrold Stone, High performance computer Architectures.
3. Richard Y. Kain , Advanced Computer Architecture.
4. Parallel Computing in C and OpenMPI , M. J. Quinn, McGraw-Hill
5. Assembly Language and Computer Architure Using C++ and JAVA w/CD, Reis, Cengage Learning

OPTICAL FIBER COMMUNICATION

Unit-1

Optical Fiber Overview- Introduction, Ray theory, Optical fibers: multimode, single mode, step index, graded index, plastic & glass fibers.
Transmission Characteristics of Optical Fibers – Introduction, Attenuation, Material absorption loss, Fiber bend loss, scattering, Dispersion (intermodal & intramodal), Dispersion Shifted Fibers, Dispersion Compensating Fiber. Manufacturing of Optical Fibers – preparation of optical fiber, Liquid phase techniques and vapor phase depositions techniques.

Unit-2

OPTICAL FIBER SOURCES- Laser- Emission and absorption of radiation, Einstein relation, Absorption of radiation, Population inversion, Optical feedback, Threshold condition. Population inversion and threshold, working of three levels & four level lasers. Basic idea of solid state, semiconductors, gas & liquid laser. Basic concept of Q-switching and mode locking.

Unit-3

Optical Detectors – Optical detection principles, quantum efficiency, Responsivity, PIN photo diode, Avalanche photo diodes, Noise in Detectors, Photo Diode Materials. Optical Connectors – Fiber Alignment, fiber splices, fiber connectors, expanded beam connectors, fiber couplers.

Unit-4

Optical Fiber Measurements – Measurements of Fiber Attenuation, Dispersion, Refractive Index Profile, Cut off Wave Length, Numerical Aperture & Diameter. Optical Time Domain Reflectometry (OTDR) – Field measurement through optical time domain reflectometry, Laser based systems for measurement of distance, Velocity, Holography.

Unit-5

Optical Fiber Systems–Wavelength division multiplexing, DWDM, active and passive components, optical sensors, optical amplifiers.
Optical Fiber Applications – public network applications, military, civil and industrial applications.

Text Books :

1. J.M. Senior, Optical Fiber Communication: Principles and Practice, Pearson Education. (2013)
2. R.P. Khare, Fiber Optics & Optoelectronics, Oxford Publications. (2014)

References Books :

1. R.P. Khare, Fiber Optics & Optoelectronics, Oxford Publications.
2. J.Gowar, Optical Communication Systems, PHI.
3. A.Ghatak & K.Thygarajan, Introduction to Fiber Optics, Cambridge University Press.
4. Joseph C Palais, Fiber Optics Communication, PHI.
5. Harold Kolimbris, Fiber Optics Communication, Pearson Education.
6. D. Anuradha, Optical Fiber and Laser, Principles and Applications, New Age.

COMMUNICATION LAB–II

Experiments :

1. To identify & solve the aliasing problem and verify the Nyquist criteria through the experimental setup.
2. To perform the experiment of observe the transmission of four signals over a single channel using TDM-PAM method.
3. To study the 4 channel PCM multiplexing & de-multiplexing in telephony system and calculate line speed and baud rate through the experimental setup.
4. To study the PCM, DPCM modulation & demodulation and study the effect of channel like as attenuation, noise in between modulator & demodulator through the experimental setup.
5. To study the Delta, Adaptive delta & sigma delta modulation & demodulation and also study the effect of channel like as attenuation, noise in between modulator & demodulator through the experimental setup.
6. To perform the experiment of generation and study the various data formatting schemes (Uni-polar, Bi-polar, Manchester, AMI etc.)
7. To perform the experiment of generation and detection of ASK, FSK, BPSK, DBPSK signals with variable length data pattern
8. To perform the experiment of generation and detection of QPSK, OQPSK, DQPSK signals with variable length data pattern.
9. To study the working of MSK modulation and its demodulation through the experimental setup.
10. To study the working of cyclic code, block code error check methods in communication system through the experimental setup.

MICROPROCESSOR LAB

Experiments :

1. Arranging a set of data in Ascending order.
2. Arranging a set of data in Descending order.
3. Finding out number of Positive, Negative and Zeros from a Data Set.
4. Searching the Existence of a certain data in a given data.
5. BCD to Binary conversion.
6. Binary to BCD conversion
7. Design a Up/Down Counter
8. Multiply Two 8 Bit Numbers using Successive Addition and Shifting method.
9. Find Factorial of a number.
10. Solve the given Algebraic Equation
11. Generate a Software Delay.
12. Division of 8 bit Unsigned Numbers.
13. A program to display real time clock. Assume a periodic signal is interrupting RST 7.5 signal after every 0.5 seconds,
14. Generate a square wave and rectangular wave of given frequency at the Output pin of 8255 chip.

RF SIMULATION LAB

Experiments :

1. Study of field pattern of various modes inside a rectangular waveguide.
2. Study of field pattern of various modes inside a rectangular waveguide cavity.
3. Observe the transient phenomenon of terminated coaxial transmission lines in order to study their time domain behaviour.
4. Study the behavior of terminated coaxial transmission lines in frequency domain.
5. Introduction to Smith chart and its application for the unknown impedance measurement.
6. Study the behavior of impedance matching for passive networks (RL, RC, RLC, T- and Π-network) using Smith chart.
7. Find the change in characteristics impedance and reflection coefficients of the transmission line by changing the dielectric properties of materials embedded between two conductors.

8.Design and simulate the following Planar Transmission Lines:
1. Stripline and microstrip lines
2. Parallel coupled striplines and microstrip lines
3. Slot lines and Coplanar lines
Determine their Field patterns and Characteristic impedance.

9. Design and simulate the following;
1. 3-dB branchline coupler,
2. backward wave coupler,
3. Wilkinson power dividers
4. rat- race hybrid ring.
5. Low pass filters
6. band pass filters.

10. Design RF amplifier using microwave BJT.
11 Design RF frequency doublers using microwave FET.

INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS LAB

Experiments :

1. Study the characteristics of SCR and observe the terminal configuration, Measure the breakdown voltage, latching and holding current. Plot V-I characteristics.
2. Perform experiment on triggering circuits for SCR. i.e. R-triggering,R-C triggering and UJT triggering circuit.
3. Study and test AC voltage regulators using triac, antiparallel thyristors and triac & diac.
4. Study and obtain the waveforms for single-phase bridge converter.
5. Perform experiment on single phase PWM inverter.
6. Perform experiment on buck, boost and buck-boost regulators.
7. Control speed of a dc motor using a chopper and plot armature voltage versus speed characteristic.
8. Control speed of a single-phase induction motor using single phase AC voltage regulator.
9. i) Study single-phase dual converter. ii) Study speed control of dc motor using single-phase dual converter.
10. Study single-phase cycloconverter.
11. Perform experiment on Motor control – open loop & closed loop.
12. Design, observe and perform experiment on various type of pulse generation from DSP/ FPGA Platform. Perform experiment for PWM inverters and choppers.

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RTU Syllabus Electronics And Communication Engineering 5th Semester

SIGNALS AND SYSTEMS

Unit-1

Introduction: Continuous time and discrete time signals and systems, Properties of systems. Linear time invariant systems- continuous time and discrete time. Properties of LTI systems and their block diagrams. Convolution, Discrete time systems described by difference equations.

Unit-2

Fourier series representation of signals: Fourier series representation of continuous periodic signal & its properties. Fourier series representation of Discrete periodic signal & its properties.Continuous time filters & Discrete time filters described by Diff.equation.

Unit-3

Fourier transform: The continuous time Fourier transform for periodic and non-periodic signals, Properties of CTFT. Discrete time Fourier transform for periodic and non-periodic signals Properties of DTFT.

Unit-4

Z-transform & laplace transform: The region of convergence for the Z-transform. The Inverse Z-transform. Two dimensional Z transform.
Properties of Z transform. Laplace transform: Properties of Laplace Transform, Application of Laplace transform to system analysis.

Unit-5

SAMPLING: Mathematical theory of sampling. Sampling theorem. Ideal & Real sampling. Interpolation technique for the reconstruction of a signal from its samples. Aliasing. Sampling in freq. domain. Sampling of discrete time signals.

Text Books :

1. Signals And Systems, Oppenheim, Willsky, Nawab, PHI.(1992)
2. Signals And Systems M J Roberts, Mc-Graw Hill.(2004)

References Books :

1. Principles Of Linear Systems And Signals, 2e (Intl. Version), Lathi 2nd,Oxford
2. Signal & Systems 3e, Chen 3rd, Oxford
3. Fundamentals Of Signals And Systems, Wiley
4. Signals And Systems, P Rao, Mc-Graw Hill
5. Signals And Systems: A Simplified Approach, Ganesh Rao, 4e, Pearson
6. Signals And Systems: Continuous And Discrete, Roger E Ziemer, 4e, PHI
7. Signals And Systems, Ravi Kumar, PHI
8. Signals & Systems, Iyer, Cengage Learning

LINEAR  INTEGRATED CIRCUITS

Unit-1

OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS: Basic differential amplifier analysis, Basic structure and principle of operation,
Single ended and double ended configurations ,, calculation of differential gain, common mode gain, Op-amp configurations with feedback, Op-amp parameters, Inverting and Non-Inverting configuration, Comparators, Adder.

Unit-2

OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER APPLICATIONS: Integrator, Differentiator, Voltage to frequency & Frequency to voltage converters.
Oscillators: Phase shift, Wien bridge, Quadrature, precision rectifier, half and full wave rectifiers, square wave, triangular wave, sawtooth oscillators. Voltage controlled oscillators.

Unit-3

ACTIVE FILTERS: Low pass, high pass, band pass and band reject filters, All pass filter, Switched capacitor filter, Butterworth filter design, Chebyshev Filter design.

Unit-4

LINEAR ICs: Four quadrant multiplier & its applications, Basic blocks of linear IC voltage regulators, Three terminal voltage regulators, Positive and negative voltage regulators. , A/D and D/A converters, analog switches, The 555 timer as astable and monostable multivibrators. Zero crossing detector, Schmitt trigger and its applications.

Unit-5

Non- linear Applications of OP-AMP: log and antilog amplifiers, and multipliers. Solution of differential equation and analog computer
PHASE-LOCKED LOOPS: Operating Principles of PLL, Linear Model of PLL, Lock range, Capture range, Applications of PLL as FM detector, FSK demodulator, AM detector, frequency translator, phase shifter, tracking filter, signal synchronizer and frequency synthesizer, Building blocks of PLL, LM 565 PLL.

Text Books :

1 OP-AMP and linear integrated circuits 2nd edition, PLHI by Ramakant A.Gayakwad.
2 Design with operation amplifiers and Analog Integrated circuits by Sergei Franco.
3 Integrated Electronics: Analog and Digital circuits & system by Millman & Halkias.
4 Linear Integrated Circuits by D.R.Chaudhary (WEL).

References Books :

1. Operational amplifier with linear integrated circuits, 4th edition, W.D. Stanley, Pearson.(2002)
2. Op Amps and Linear Integrated Circuits: Concepts and Applications, Fiore, Cengage learning (2010)

TELECOMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

Unit-1

TRANSMISSION LINE: Types of transmission lines, general transmission line equation, line constant, equivalent circuits, infinite line, and reflection on a line, SWR of line with different type of terminations. Distortion less and dissipation less lines, Coaxial cables, Transmission lines at audio and radio frequencies, Losses in transmission line, Characteristics of quarter wave, half wave and lines of other lengths.

Unit-2

TRANSMISSION LINE APPLICATIONS: Smith chart and its application. Transmission line applications, Impedance matching Network. Single & double Stub matching. Measurement of parameters of transmission line, measurement of attenuation, insertion loss, reflection coefficient and standing wave ratio.

Unit-3

ATTENUATORS & FILTERS: Elements of telephone transmission networks, symmetrical and Asymmetrical two port networks. Different Attenuators, π-section & T-section attenuators, stub matching, Transmission equalizers Filters, constant K- section, Ladder type, π-section, T-section filter, m-derived filter sections, Lattice filter section.

Unit-4

TELEPHONY: Voice transmission, Two wire/ Four wire transmission, Multi-channel systems: Frequency division & time division multiplexing, Echo suppressors & cancellers, cross talk. Telephone set, Touch tone dial types, Numbering Concept for Telephony, Essentials of Traffic Engineering, Telephone Traffic Measurements, Subscriber loop Design.

Unit-5

Switching and Signaling for Analog and Digital Telephone Networks: Introduction to switching Concepts, De-generation, Availability and Grading, Principle of Electronic Exchange, EPABX and SPC Digital telephone Exchange, Fascimile services. Approaches to PCM Switching: Multistage switches, Time Switch, Space Switch, STS and TST Switches, Concept of Supervisory and AC signaling.

Text Books :

1. Telecommunication system engineering, roger l. Freeman, wiley (2004)
2. Telecommunication switching systems & networks, thiagrajan vishwanathan, phi(1994)

References Books :

1. Introduction to Telecommunications, Gokhale ,Cengage learning
2. Telecommunication, W.Fraser., PHI
3. Digital Telephony, Bellamy, Wiley.
4. Schaum’s Outline of Theory and Problems of Transmission Lines,TMH.
5. Transmission Lines and Networks, Umesh Sinha, Satya Prakashan.
6. E.Keiser&E.Strange, Digital Telephony and Network Integration, (2/e), Van Nostrand,.
7. Principles of Telephony, N.N. Biswas, Sangam Books Limited.
8. Transmission Lines and Networks, Umesh Sinha, Satya Prakashan
9. Telecommunications Switching, Traffic and Networks, J.E. Flood, Pearson

ANALOG COMMUNICATION

Unit-1

NOISE EFFECTS IN COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS: Representation of Band Limited and Band Pass Process, Noise Sources and Classification, Resistor noise, Networks with reactive elements, Noise temperature, Noise bandwidth, effective input noise temperature, Noise figure. Noise figure & equivalent noise temperature in cascaded circuits. Narrow band Noise Representation.

Unit-2

AMPLITUDE MODULATION: Frequency translation, Single Tone Modulation,
Recovery of base band signal, Spectrum & power relations in AM systems. Methods of Modulation & Demodulation of AM-DSB, DSB-SC and SSB signals. AM Broadcast Transmitters & Receivers, Single Sideband Transmission and Reception, Super heterodyne receivers, Vestigial Sideband Modulation.

Unit-3

FREQUENCY MODULATION: Phase & freq. modulation & their relationship, Spectrum & band width of a Sinusoidal modulated FM signal, Phasor diagram, Narrow band & wide band FM. Generation & demodulation of FM signals. Effect of Channel Non-Linearity, Comparison of AM, FM & PM, Threshold in FM, PLL demodulator. FM Broadcasting transmitters & Receivers.

Unit-4

NOISE IN AM AND FM: Noise in CW modulation systems, SNR calculations for synchronous  detection  of  DSB  and  SSB  and  envelope  detection  of  AM,  SNR calculations for angle modulation system, Pre-emphasis and de-emphasis, Threshold effect, Noise in Communication subsystems – Internal and external noise.

Unit-5

PULSE  ANALOG  MODULATION: Practical aspects of sampling: Natural and flat top  sampling.  Reconstruction,  PAM,  PWM,  PPM  modulation  and  demodulation methods, Noise Performance of Pulse Analog Modulation Systems.

Text Books :

1. Analog Communications Systems, P RamaKrishna Rao, Mc Graw Hill (2008)
2. Communications Systems, 5ed-, Haykins, Wiley (2009)

References Books :

1. Principles of Communication Systems, Herbert Taub, Donald Schilling, Goutam Saha, TMH
2. Analog and Digital Communication, Schum Series, TMH
3. Digital & Analog Communication Systems, Leon W. Couch, Pearson
4. Analog & Digital Communication Systems, Singal, TMH
5. An Introduction To Analog & Digital Communications, Haykins, Wiley
6. Electronic Communication Systems-, Kennedy Devis, TMH
7. Digital And Analog Communication Systems, Shanmugam, Wiley
8. Proakis J. G. and Salehi M., “Communication Systems Engineering”, Pearson Education
9. Electronic Communication Systems, Blake, Cengage learning

MICROWAVE ENGINEERING-I

Unit-1

MICROWAVE TRANSMISSION LINES: Introduction of Microwaves and their applications. Rectangular Waveguides: TE and TM wave solutions, Field patterns, Wave impedance and Power flow.

PLANAR TRANSMISSION LINES: Stripline and microstrip lines – Dominant mode of propagation, Field patterns, Characteristic impedance, Basic design formulas and characteristics. Parallel coupled striplines and microstrip lines- Even- and odd- mode excitations. Slot lines and Coplanar lines. Advantages over waveguides.

Unit-2

MICROWAVE NETWORK ANALYSIS: Impedance and Admittance matrices, Scattering matrix, Parameters of reciprocal and Loss less networks, ABCD Matrix, Scattering matrices of typical two- port, three-port and four-port networks, Conversion between two- port network matrices.

Unit-3

MICROWAVE PASSIVE COMPONENTS: Waveguide Components: E- plane and H- plane Tees, Magic Tee, Shorting plunger, Directional couplers, and Attenuator.

Stripline and Microstrip line Components: Open and shorted ends. Half wave resonator, Lumped elements (inductors, capacitors and resistors) in microstrip. Ring resonator, 3-dB branchline coupler, backward wave coupler, Wilkinson power dividers and rat- race hybrid ring. Low pass and band pass filters.

Unit-4

MICROWAVE MEASUREMENTS: Detection of microwaves, Microwave power measurement, Impedance measurement, Measurement of reflection loss (VSWR), and transmission loss in components. Passive and active circuit measurement & characterization using network analyser, spectrum analyser and noise figuremeter.

Unit-5

MICROWAVE INTEGRATED CIRCUIT TECHNOLOGY: Substrates for Microwave Integrated Circuits (MICs) and their properties. Hybrid technology  Photolithographic process, deposited and discrete lumped components. Microwave Monolithic Integrated Circuit (MMIC) technology- Substrates, MMIC process, comparison with hybrid integrated circuit technology (MIC technology).

Text Books :

1. A. Das and S. Das, Microwave Engineering, Tata McGraw-Hill, 2000.
2. D. M. Pozar, Microwave Engineering, John Wiley & Sons, 1998. (Use the latest version)

References Books :

1. B. Bhat and S. K. Koul, Stripline-like Transmission Lines for Microwave Integrated Circuits, Wiley Eastern Ltd.,
2. T. C. Edwards, Foundations for Microstrip Circuit Design, John Wiley & Sons,.
3. K. C. Gupta, R. Garg, I.Bahl and P. Bhartia, Microstrip Lines and Slotlines, Second Edition, Artech House
4. K.C Gupta, Microwaves, Wiley Eastern Ltd.
5. P.A. Rizzi, Microwave Engineering- Passive Circuits, Prentice Hall,.
6. Robert E. Collin, Foundations for microwave engineering 2ed
7. Microwave Engineering , Raghuvanshi,Cengage learning

BIOMEDICAL INSTRUMENTATION

Unit-1

HUMAN BODY SUBSYSTEMS- Brief description of neural, muscular, cardiovascular and respiratory systems; their electrical, mechanical and chemical activities.

TRANSDUCERS AND ELECTRODES- Principles and classification of transducers for Bio-medical applications, Electrode theory, different types of electrodes, Selection criteria for transducers and electrodes.

Unit-2

BIOPOTENTIALS- Electrical activity of excitable cells, ENG, EMG, ECG, ERG, ECG. Neuron potential. CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM MEASUREMENTS- Measurement of blood pressure, blood flow, cardiac output, cardiac rate, heart sounds, Electrocardiograph, phonocardiograph, Plethysmograph, Echocardiograph.

Unit-3

INSTRUMENTATION FOR CLINICAL LABORATORY- Measurement of pH value of blood, ESR measurement, hemoglobin measurement, O2 and CO2 concentration in blood, GSR measurement. Spectrophotomentry, chromatography, Hematology,
MEDICAL IMAGING: Diagnostic X-rays, CAT, MRI, thermography, ultrasonography, medical use of isotopes, endoscopy.

Unit-4

PATIENT CARE, BIOTELEMETRY AND SAFETY MEASURES Elements of Intensive care monitoring basic hospital systems and components, physiological effects of electric current shock hazards from electrical equipment, safety measures, Standards & practices. Biomedical Telemetry: Introduction, block diagram and description of single channel/multi channel telemetry systems.
THERAPEUTIC AND PROSTHETIC DEVICES – Introduction to cardiac pacemakers, defibrillators, ventilators, muscle stimulators, diathermy, heart lung machine, Hemodialysis, Applications of Laser.

Unit-5

APPLICATIONS OF BIOPOTENTIALS: Electrocardiographic diagnostic criteria for Identification of cardiac disorders, Electro cardiographic pattern of ischemia, Atrial abnormalities, Ventricular enlargement, Abnormal ECG patterns, Clinical applications of EEG, EMG, ERG.
COMPUTER APPLICATIONS: data acquisition and processing, remote data recording and management. Real time computer applications

Text Books :

1. L. Cromwell, F. J. Weibell, and L. A. Pfeiffer, Biomedical Instrumentation and Measurements, Pearson Education, Delhi, (1990)
2. J. J. Carr and J. M. Brown, Introduction to Biomedical Equipment Technology, 4th ed., Pearson Education, Delhi, (2001)

References Books :

1. Biomedical Instrumentation Systems , Chatterjee, Cengage learning
2. Aston, “Principles of Biomedical Instrumentation and measurements”, McGraw Hill publishing Co,
3. L.A. Geddes and L.E. Baker, Principles of Applied Biomedical Instrumentation , John Wiley & Sons, Inc,
4. Richard Aston, Principles of Biomedical Instrumentation and Measurement , Merrill Publishing Company,.
5. Jacobson B. and Webster J.G., Medical Clinical Engineers , Prentice Hall Inc.,.
6. J. G. Webster, Medical Instrumentation Application and Design, 3rd ed., John Wiley & Sons, N.Y.,
7. R. S. Khandpur, Handbook of Biomedical Instrumentation, 2nd ed., Tata McGraw Hill,
8. R. Anandanatarajan, “Biomedical Instrumentation”, PHI Learning

ADVANCED DATA STRUCTURES AND ALGORITHMS

Unit-1

Basic Concepts of OOPs – Templates Function and class templates -Algorithms: performance analysis: time complexity and space complexity– ADT – List (Singly– Doubly and Circular) Implementation – Array – Pointer – Cursor Implementation

Unit-2

Stacks and Queues – ADT– Implementation and Applications – Trees – General– Binary – Binary Search – Expression Search – AVL – Introduction to Red Black trees and Splay tree – B Trees – Implementations – Tree Traversals

Unit-3

Set – Implementation – Basic Operations on Set – Priority Queue – Implementation – Graphs – Directed Graphs – Shortest Path Problem Undirected Graph – Spanning Trees – Graph Traversals: hash table representation: hash functions: collision resolution: separate chaining: open addressing: linear probing: quadratic probing: double hashing: rehashing.

Unit-4

Issues – Managing Equal Sized Blocks – Garbage Collection Algorithms for Equal Sized Blocks – Storage Allocation for Objects with Mixed Sizes – Buddy Systems – Storage Compaction

Unit-5

Searching Techniques – Sorting – Internal Sorting – Bubble Sort – Insertion Sort – Quick Sort – Heap Sort – Bin Sort – Radix Sort – External Sorting – Merge Sort – Multiway Merge Sort – Polyphase Sorting – Design Techniques – Divide and Conquer – Dynamic Programming – Greedy Algorithm – Backtracking – Local Search Algorithms.

Text Books :

1. Tanenbaum A.S, Langram Y, Augestien M.J., Data Structures using C & C++, Prentice Hall of India, (2002).
2. Data structures, Algorithms and Applications in C++, S.Sahni, University Press (India) Pvt.Ltd, 2nd edition, Universities Press Orient Longman Pvt. Ltd. (2005)

References Books :

1. Mark Allen Weiss:Data Structures and Algorithm Analysis in C++,Pearson Education
2. Aho Hopcroft Ullman, ―Data Structures and Algorithms, Pearson Education,
3. Horowitz Sahni, Rajasekaran, ―Computer Algorithms, Galgotia,.
4. Data structures and Algorithms in C++, Michael T.Goodrich, R.Tamassia and Mount, Wiley student edition, John Wiley and Sons.
5. Data Structure and Algorithm in C++ , Drozdek, Cengage learning
6. Data Structures: A Pseudocode Approach with C, Gilberg,Cengage learning

COMPUTER ORIENTED NUMERICAL & STATISTICAL METHODS

Unit-1

SOLUTION OF LINEAR EQUATIONS- Cramer’s Rule, Gauss Elimination, Gauss Jordan Elimination and Gauss Seidal Iterative Methods

Unit-2

SOLUTION OF NON-LINEAR EQUATIONS- Interval Bisection Method, Secant Method, Regula- Falsi Method, Curve Fitting, Method of
Least Squares and their Computer Programming in C

Unit-3

SOLUTION OF PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS- Solution of Partial Differential Equations with Special Reference to Heat Equation, Laplace Equation and Wave Equation Milne’s and their Computer Programming in C. Curve Fitting Methods – Method of Least Squares, Fitting a Straight Line, Parabola.

Unit-4

STOCHASTIC PROCESSES – Definitions, Random Process Concept, Statistics of Stochastic Processes: Mean, Autocorrelation, Autocovariance. Stationary Processes, Strict and Wide Sense Stationary, Random Processes and Linear Systems.

Unit-5

STOCHASTIC PROCESSES IN FREQUENCY DOMAIN – Power Spectrum of Stochastic Processes, Transmission over LTI systems, Gaussian and White Processes, Properties of Power Spectral Density.

Text Books :

1. Numerical methods for Scientific and Engineering Computation by M.K.Jain, S.R.K.Iyengar, R.K. Jain. (2003)
2. Computer based numerical algorithms by E.V. Krishnamoorthy.(2004)

References Books :

1. Introduction to Numerical Analysis by E. Atkinson
2. Peebles, P. Probability, random variables and random signal principles. Mc Graw Hill.
3. Computer Oriented Numerical & Statistical Methods by Dr. Gokhroo & Others
4. Elementary Numerical Analysis by Samuel D.Conte and Cart de Boor, McGraw Hill International Edition.
5. Numerical methods for Science and Engineering, PHI by R.G.Stanton
6. Papoulis, A. Probability, random variables and stochastic processes. Mc Graw Hill (international Students’ edition), Singapore.
7. Childers, D. G. Probability and random processes using MATLAB. Mc Graw Hill,
8. Smith, G. D. Numerical Solution of PDE, Oxford Uni. Press

ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING DESIGN LAB

Experiments :

1. Op-Amp characteristics and get data for input bias current measure the output-offset voltage and reduce it to zero and calculate slew rate.
2. Op-Amp in inverting and non-inverting modes.
3. Op-Amp as scalar, summer and voltage follower.
4. Op-Amp as differentiator and integrator.
5. Design LPF and HPF using Op-Amp 741
6. Design Band Pass and Band reject Active filters using Op-Amp 741.
7. Design Oscillators using Op-Amp (i) RC phase shift (ii) Hartley (iii) Colpitts
8. Design (i) Astable (ii) Monostable multivibrators using IC-555 timer
9. Design Triangular & square wave generator using 555 timer.
10. Design Amplifier (for given gain) using Bipolar Junction Transistor.

MICROWAVE ENGINEERING LAB

Experiments :

1. Study of various microwave components and instruments like frequency meter, attenuator, detector and VSWR meter. (a) Measurement of guide wavelength and frequency using a X-band slotted line setup. (b) Measurement of low and high VSWR using a X-band slotted line setup.
2. Measurement of SWR and shift in the standing wave minimum with unknown load, and calculation of unknown load impedance using Smith chart.
3. (a) Draw the V-I characteristics of a Gunn diode, and determine the output power and frequency as a function of voltage (b) Study the square wave modulation of microwave signal using PIN diode modulator.
4. Measurement of resonance characteristics of a microstrip ring resonator using power meter and Determination of the substrate dielectric constant.
5. (a) To study the coupling characteristics of (i) a microstrip 3dB branchline coupler, and (ii) a stripline backward wave coupler as a function of frequency. Compare the bandwidth in the two cases. (b) Measure the microwave input, direct, coupled and isolated powers of a backward wave stripline coupler at the centre frequency using a power meter. From the measurements calculate the coupling, isolation and directivity of the coupler.
6. Measure the power division and isolation characteristics of a microstrip 3dB power divider.
7. Study of rat race hybrid ring (equivalent of waveguide Magic-Tee) in microstrip
8. (a) Study of low pass and band pass microstrip filters (b) Measurement of gain versus frequency of a microwave amplifier using power meter.

COMMUNICATION LAB – I

Experiments :

1. To generate the different type of waveforms using fundamental frequency and its harmonics and also analysis these waveforms.
2. Perform the experiment of the amplitude modulation and calculate the modulation index. Also study the DSB, DSB-SC, SSB modulation & demodulation and also observe the effect of AGC.
3. To Study the properties of Super Heterodyne receiver in AM transmitting & receiving. Sensitivity, selectivity through experimental setup.
4. To perform the different type of FM modulation & demodulation schemes and study the effect of Amplitude limiter in FM demodulator.
5. To find the characteristics impedance, input impedance, losses, standing waves, phase shifting in transmission line.
6. To perform the PAM (natural, flat top, sample & hold sampling), PWM, PPM Modulation & demodulation techniques.
7. To perform the experiment of and observe the effect of change in type of modulating signal as sine , square, arbitrary and change in frequency of sampling signal in PAM, PWM, PPM modulation and demodulation.
8. To Study & observation of the four channel analog TDM using DSB-SC through experimental setup.
9. To Study& observation of the FDM through experimental setup.
10. To perform the experiment of the various sampling (natural, flat top & sample & hold) of analog signal of type sine, square & arbitrary.

SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB

Experiments :

1. Simulation in MATLAB Environment: Generation of continuous and discrete elementary signals (periodic and non-periodic) using mathematical expression.
2. Generation of Continuous and Discrete Unit Step Signal.
3. Generation of Exponential and Ramp signals in Continuous & Discrete domain.
4. Continuous and discrete time Convolution (using basic definition).
5. Adding and subtracting two given signals. (Continuous as well as Discrete signals)
6. To generate uniform random numbers between (0, 1).
7. To generate a random binary wave.
8. To generate random sequences with arbitrary distributions, means and variances for following :
(a) Rayleigh distribution (b) Normal distributions: N(0,1). (c) Gaussion distributions: N (mx, σ 2) x
9. To plot the probability density functions. Find mean and variance for the above distributions

 

 

RTU Syllabus Electronics And Communication Engineering 4th Semester

ANALOG ELECTRONICS

Unit-1

FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS – Classification, Feedback concept, Feedback Topologies, Transfer gain with feedback, General characteristics of negative feedback amplifiers. Analysis of voltage-series, voltage-shunt, current-series and current-shunt feedback amplifier. Stability criterion. Compensation techniques, miller compensation.

Unit-2

OSCILLATORS & Multivibrators – Classification. Criterion for oscillation. Tuned collector, Hartley, Colpitts, RC Phase shift, Wien bridge and crystal oscillators, Astable, monostable and bistable multivibrators. Schmitt trigger. Blocking oscillators.

Unit-3

HIGH FREQUENCY AMPLIFIERS – Hybrid Pi model, Conductances and capacitances of hybrid Pi model, high frequency analysis of CE amplifier, gain bandwidth product, unity gain frequency fT, Emitter follower at high frequencies.

Unit-4

TUNED AMPLIFIER – Band Pass Amplifier, Parallel resonant Circuits, Band Width of Parallel resonant circuit. Analysis of Single Tuned Amplifier, Primary & Secondary Tuned Amplifier with BJT & FET, Double TunedTransformer Coupled Amplifier. Stagger Tuned Amplifier. Pulse Response of such Amplifier, class C tuned amplifiers, Shunt Peaked Circuits for Increased Bandwidth.

Unit-5

POWER AMPLIFIERS – Classification, Power transistors & power MOSFET (DMOS, VMOS). Output power, power dissipation and efficiency analysis of Class A, class B, class AB, class C, class D and class E amplifiers as output stages. Pushpull amplifiers with and without transformers, Complementary symmetry & quasi complimentary symmetry amplifiers.

Text Books :

1. Millman, Integrated Electronics, TMH.(1972)
2. A. S. Sedra, Kenneth C. Smith, Microelectronic Circuits, Oxford University Press.(2007)

References Books :

1. M. H. Rashid, Microelectronic Circuits Analysis and Design, Cengage Learning
2. Electronic Devices and Circuits–II, R.Tiwari, Genius publications
3. Salivahnan, Electronics Devices and Circuits, TMH.
4. Fundamentals of Analog Circuits 2e, Floyd, Pearson
5. David A. BELL, Electronic Devices and Circuits, Oxford University Press.

RANDOM VARIABLES & STOCHASTIC PROCESSES

Unit-1

PROBABILITY – Introduction, definitions, conditional probability, combined experiments.

Unit-2

RANDOM VARIABLES – Introduction, Distribution and density functions, Discrete and continuous random variables, (Gaussian), Exponential, Rayleigh, Uniform, Bernoulli, Binominal, Poisson, discrete Uniform and conditional distributions. Functions of one random variable: distribution, mean, variance, moments and characteristics functions.

Unit-3

MULTIPLE RANDOM VARIABLES – distributions, Pne function of two random variables, Two functions of two random variables, Joint moments, Joint characteristics functions, Conditional distributions, conditional expected values, statistical independence. Multiple random variables: multiple functions of multiple random variables, jointly Gaussian random variables, sums of random variable, Central limit theorem.

Unit-4

STOCHASTIC PROCESSES – Definitions, Random process concept, Statistics of stochastic processes: mean, autocorrelation, strict and wide sense stationary, random processes and Linear Systems.

Unit-5

STOCHASTIC PROCESSES IN FREQUENCY DOMAIN – Power spectrum of stochastic processes, Transmission over LTI systems, Gaussian and White processes, Properties of power spectral density.

Text Books :

1. Probability, Random Variables And Stochastic Processes, Papoulis, TMH (2002)
2. Stochastic Processes, 2ed, Ross, Wiley.(1996)

References Books :

1. Devore – Probability and statistics for engineering and sciences, Cengage learning
2. Mendenhall – Introduction to probability and statistics, Cengage learning
3. Probability, Random Variables And Random Signal Principles, Peebles, TMH
4. Probability Theory and Stochastic Processes for Engineers, Bhat, Pearson
5. Probability and Random Processes with Application to Signal Processing, 3/e, Stark,Pearson
6. Random Variables & Stochastic Processes, Gaur and Srivastava, Genius publications
7. Random Processes: Filtering, Estimation and Detection, Ludeman, Wiley
8. An Introduction to Probability Theory & Its App., Feller, Wiley

ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENT & INSTRUMENTATION

Unit-1

THEORY OF ERRORS – Accuracy & precision, Repeatability, Limits of errors, Systematic & random errors, Modeling of errors, Probable error & standard deviation, Gaussian error analysis, Combination of errors.

Unit-2

ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENTS – Electronic Voltmeter, Electronic Multimeters, Digital Voltmeter, and Component Measuring Instruments: Q meter, Vector Impedance meter, RF Power & Voltage Measurements, Introduction to shielding & grounding.

Unit-3

OSCILLOSCOPES – CRT Construction, Basic CRO circuits, CRO Probes, Techniques of Measurement of frequency, Phase Angle and Time
Delay, Multibeam, multi trace, storage & sampling Oscilloscopes.

Unit-4

SIGNAL GENERATION AND SIGNAL ANALYSIS – Sine wave generators, Frequency synthesized signal generators, Sweep frequency generators. Signal Analysis – Measurement Technique, Wave Analyzers, and Frequency – selective wave analyser, Heterodyne wave analyser, Harmonic distortion analyser, and Spectrum analyser.

Unit-5

TRANSDUCERS – Classification, Selection Criteria, Characteristics, Construction, Working Principles and Application of following Transducers:- RTD, Thermocouples, Thermistors, LVDT, Strain Gauges, Bourdon Tubes, Seismic Accelerometers, Tachogenerators, Load Cell, Piezoelectric Transducers, Ultrasonic Flow Meters.

Text Books :

1. Electronic Instrument and Measurment, Bell, Oxford .(2007)
2. Electronic Measurements & Instrumentation, Bernard Oliver, TMH.(1971)

References Books :

1. Electronic Instrumentation, H S Kalsi, TMH
2. Instrumentation Measurement & Analysis, B.C.Nakra,K.K. Chaudhry, TMH
3. Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation, Gupta & Soni, Genius pub.
4. Electronic Measurements & Instrumentation, Bernard Oliver, John Cage, TMH
5. Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation, Lal Kishore, Pearson
6. Elements of Electronic Instrumentation And Measurement, Carr, Pearson
7. Instrumentation for Engineering Measurements, 2ed, Dally, Wiley
8. Introduction To Measurements and Instrumetation, Arun K. Ghosh, PHI

ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORY

Unit-1

INTRODUCTION – Vector Algebra, different Coordinate system, Relation in rectangular, cylindrical, spherical and general curvilinear coordinates system. Line, Surface and volume integral, Concept and physical interpretation of gradient, Divergence and curl. Divergence, Stoke’s and Green’s theorems.

Unit-2

ELECTROSTATICS – Electric field intensity & flux density (D). Electric field due to various charge configurations. Gauss’s law, divergence of electric flux and Maxwell’s first equation, The potential functions and gradient of electric potential. Maxwell curl equation for static electric field. Poisson’s and Laplace’s equation and their solution. Divergence of current density (J) and Continuity equation for current. Duality of J and D, Capacitance and electrostatics energy. Field determination by method of images, Boundary conditions, Field mapping and concept of field cells.

Unit-3

MAGNETOSTATICS – Bio-Savart’s law, Ampere’s circuital law Magnetic field intensity H, flux density B & magnetization M, their interrelation. Curl of H. Magnetic scalar and vector potential, Faraday’s Law, self & mutual inductance, Energy stored in magnetic field, Boundary conditions, Analogy between electric and magnetic field, Field maping and concept of field cells.

Unit-4

TIME VARYING FIELDS – Displacement currents, displacement vector and equation of continuity. Maxwell’s equations, Uniform plane wave in free space, dielectrics and conductors, Depth of penetration-skin effect, Sinusoidal time variations, Reflection & Refraction of Uniform Plane Wave, standing wave ratio. Pointing vector and power considerations.

Unit-5

RADIATION, EMI AND EMC – Retarded Potentials and concepts of radiation, Radiation from a small current element. Radiation Resistance: Introduction to Electromagnetic Interference and Electromagnetic compatibility, EMI error in equipments, EMI standard, EMI coupling modes, Methods of eliminating interference, shielding, grounding, conducted EMI, EMI testing: emission testing, susceptibility testing.

Text Books :

1. Sadiku, Electromagnetic Field Theory, Oxford .(2000)
2. Mahapatra, Principles of Electromagnetics, TMH.(2011)

References Books :

1. Kshetrimeyum – Electromagnetic field theory, Cengage learning
2. Hayt, Engineering Electromagnetics, TMH
3. Jordan Balmain, Electromagnetic Field Theory and Radiations, PHI
4. Kaduskar ,Principles of Electromagnetics, Wiley
5. Reitz ,Foundations of Electromagnetic Theory, Pearson
6. Seavganokar, Electromagnetic Waves, TMH
7. Rao, Electromagnetic Field Theory and Transmission Lines, Wiley
8. David K. Chang, Electromagnetic Field Theory, Pearson

OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUES

Unit-1

INTRODUCTION – Historical development, engineering application of optimization, Formulation of design problems as a mathematical programming problem, Classification of optimization problems.

Unit-2

LINEAR PROGRAMMING – Simplex methods, Revised simplex method, Duality in linear programming, post optimality analysis.

Unit-3

APPLICATIONS OF LINEAR PROGRAMMING – Transportation and assignment problems

Unit-4

NON-LINEAR PROGRAMMING – Unconstrained optimization techniques, Direct search methods, Descent methods, Constrained optimization, Direct and Indirect methods.

Unit-5

DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING- Introduction, multi-decision processes, computational procedure

Text Books :

1. Albright – Data analysis, optimization and simulation modeling, Cengage learning .(2011)

References Books :

1. Hiller and Lieberman, Introduction to Operation Research (Seventh Edition),TMH
2. Prasad – Operations Research, Cengage learning
3. Ravindren Philips and Solberg, Operation Research Principles and Practice (Second Edition), Wiley
4. Anderson – An introduction to management science, quantitative approaches to decision making, Cengage learning

ADVANCED ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-II

Unit-1

NUMERICAL  ANALYSIS-   Finite  differences  –  Forward,  Backward  and Central differences. Newton’s forward and backward differences, interpolation formulae. Stirling’s formula, Lagrange’s interpolation formula.

Unit-2

NUMERICAL ANALYSIS- Integration-Trapezoidal rule, Simpson’s one third and three-eighth rules. Numerical solution of ordinary differential equations of first order – Picard’s mathod, Euler’s and modified Euler’s methods, Miline’s method and Runga-Kutta fourth order method, Differentiation.

Unit-3

SPECIAL FUNCTIONS – Bessel’s functions of first and second kind, simple recurrence relations, orthogonal property of Bessel’s, Transformation, Generating functions, Legendre’s function of first kind. Simple recurrence relations, Orthogonal property, Generating function.

Unit-4

STATISTICS AND PROBABILITY – Elementary theory of probability, Baye’s IV theorem with simple applications, Expected value, theoretical probability distributions-Binomial, Poisson and Normal distributions. Lines of regression, co-relation and rank correlation.

Unit-5

CALCULUS OF VARIATIONS – Functional, strong and weak variations simple variation problems, the Euler’s equation.

Text Books :

1. Advanced Engg. Mathematics, Irvin Kreyszig, Wiley .(2007)

References Books :

1. Datta – Mathematical methods of science & engineering, Cengage learning
2. O’neil – Advanced Engineering mathematics, Cengage learning
3. Applied Statics & Probability, Montgomery, Wiley
4. Engineering Mathematics, T Veerarajan, TMH
5. Mathematical Techniques, Jordan, Oxford
6. Engineering Mathematics IV, K.C. Sarangi and others, Genius publications
7. Advance Engineering Mathematics, Potter, Oxford
8. Advanced Engineering Mathematics, 2/e, Greenberg

COMPUTER PROGRAMMING LAB-II

Experiments :

1. Write a program to perform the complex arithmetic.
2. Write a program to perform the rational number arithmetic.
3. Write a program to perform the matrix operations. (Transpose, addition, subtraction, multiplication, test if a matrix is symmetric/ lower triangular/ upper triangular)
4. Implement Morse code to text conversion and vice-versa.
5. To calculate Greatest Common Divisor of given numbers.
6. To implement tower of Hanoi problem.
7. To implement spell checker using dictionary.
8. To implement a color selector from a given set of colors.
9. To implement a shape selector from a given set of shapes.
10. To implement a calculator with its functionality.
11. By mapping keys to pens of different colors, implement turtle graphics.
12. To implement a graph and display BFS/DFS order of nodes.

ANALOG ELECTRONICS LAB

Experiments :

1. Plot gain-frequency characteristics of BJT amplifier with and without feedback in the emitter circuit and determine bandwidths, gain bandwidth products and gains at 1kHz with and without negative feedback.
2. Study of series and shunt voltage regulators and measurement of line regulation and ripple factor.
3. Plot and study the characteristics of small signal amplifier using FET.
4. Study of push pull amplifier. Measure variation of output power & distortion with load.
5. Study Wein bridge oscillator and observe the effect of variation in R oscillator frequency
6. Study transistor phase shift oscillator and observe the effect of variation in R & C on oscillator frequency and compare with theoretical value.
7. Study the following oscillators and observe the effect of variation of C on oscillator frequency: (a) Hartley (b) Colpitts
8. Design Fabrication and Testing of k-derived filters (LP/HP).
9. Study of a Digital Storage CRO and store a transient on it.
10. To plot the characteristics of UJT and UJT as relaxation.
11. To plot the characteristics of MOSFET and CMOS.

MEASUREMENT & INSTRUMENTATION LAB

Experiments :

1.  Measure earth resistance using fall of potential method.
2. Plot V-I characteristics & measure open circuit voltage & short circuit current of a solar panel
3. Measure unknown inductance capacitance resistance using following bridges (a) Anderson Bridge (b) Maxwell Bridge
4. To measure unknown frequency & capacitance using Wein’s bridge.
5. Measurement of the distance with the help of ultrasonic transmitter & receiver.
6. Measurement of displacement with the help of LVDT.
7. Draw the characteristics of the following temperature transducers (a) RTD (Pt-100) (b) Thermistors.
8. Draw the characteristics between temperature & voltage of a K type thermocouple.
9. Calibrate an ammeter using D.C. slide wire potentiometer.
10. Measurement of strain/ force with the help of strain gauge load cell.
11. Study the working of Q-meter and measure Q of coils.
12. Calibrate a single-phase energy meter (Analog and Digital) by phantom loading at different power factor by: (i) Phase shifting transformer (ii) Auto transformer .

 

RTU Syllabus Electronics And Communication Engineering 3rd Semester

ELECTRONICS DEVICES  & CIRCUITS

Unit-1

SEMICONDUCTOR PHYSICS – Mobility and conductivity, Charge densities in a semiconductor, Fermi Dirac distribution, Fermi-Dirac statistics and Boltzmann approximation to the Fermi-Dirac statistics, Carrier concentrations and Fermi levels in semiconductor, Generation and recombination of charges, Diffusion and continuity equation, Transport equations, Mass action Law, Hall effect.

Unit-2

JUNCTION DIODES – Formation of homogenous and hetrojuntion diodes and their energy band diagrams, Calculation of contact potential and depletion width, V-I characteristics, Small signal models of diode, Diode as a circuit element, Diode parameters and load line concept, C-V characteristics and dopant profile. Applications of diodes in rectifier, Clipping, Clamping circuits and voltage multipliers, Transient behavior of PN diode, Breakdown diodes, Schottky diodes, and Zener diode as voltage regulator, Construction, Characteristics and operating principle of UJT.

Unit-3

TRANSISTORS – Characteristics, Current components, Current gains: alpha and beta. Variation of transistor parameter with temperature and current level, Operating point, Hybrid model, DC model of transistor, h-parameter equivalent circuits. CE, CB and CC configuration. DC and AC analysis of single stage CE, CC  (Emitter  follower)  and  CB  amplifiers  AC  & DC  load  line,  Ebers-Moll model. Biasing & stabilization techniques. Thermal runaway, Thermal stability.

Unit-4

JFET & MOSFET – Construction and operation, Noise performances of FET, Parasitic of MOSFET, Small signal models of JFET & MOSFET, Biasing of JFET’s & MOSFET’s, Low frequency single stage CS and CD (source follower) JFET amplifiers, FET as voltage variable resistor and FET as active load.

Unit-5

SMALL SIGNAL AMPLIFIERS AT LOW FREQUENCY – Analysis of BJT and FET multistage amplifier, DC and RC coupled amplifiers. Frequency response of single and multistage amplifier, mid-band gain, gains at low and high frequency. Analysis of DC and differential amplifiers, Miller’s Theorem, use of Miller and bootstrap configuration. Cascade and cascode configuration of multistage amplifiers (CE-CE, CE-CB, CS-CS and CS-CD), Darlington pair.

Text Books :

1. Integrated Electronics, Millman Halkias, T.H, (2001)

Reference Books :

1. Electronic devices & circuits theory, R.L. Boylestad, Louis Nashelsky , Pearson education
2. Electronic devices & circuits, David Bell, Oxford Publications
3. M Rashid – Microelectronic circuits : Analysis & Design, Cengage learning
4. Millman, Electronics Devices and Circuits, TMH
5. Electronic Devices,7e, Floyd, Pearson
6. A.S. Sedra and K.C. Smith, Microelectronic Circuits, Saunder’s College Publishing

DATA STRUCTURES & ALGORITHMS

Unit-1

DEFINITION & CHARACTERISTICS OF ALGORITHMS – Structures, Difficulties in estimating exact execution time of algorithms, Concept of complexity of program, Asymptotic notations: Big-Oh, theta, Omega- Definitions and examples, Determination of time and space complexity of simple algorithms without recursion, Representing a function in asymptotic notations viz 5n2-6n=θ(n2)
ARRAYS: Array as storage element, Row major & column major form of arrays, computation of address of elements of n dimensional array.

Unit-2

ARRAYS AS STORAGE ELEMENTS for representing polynomial of one or more degrees for addition & multiplication, Sparse matrices for transposing & multiplication, stack, queue, Dequeue, Circular queue for insertion and deletion with condition for over and underflow, Transposition of sparse matrices with algorithms of varying complexity (Includes algorithms for operations as mentioned).
EVALUATION OF EXPRESSION – Concept of precedence and associativity in expressions, Difficulties in dealing with infix expressions, Resolving precedence of operators and association of operands, Postfix & prefix expressions, conversion of expression from one form to other form using stack (with & without parenthesis), Evaluation of expression in infix, postfix & prefix forms using stack. Recursion.

Unit-3

LINEAR LINKED LISTS – Singly, doubly and circularly connected linear linked lists- insertion, Deletion at/ from beginning and any point in ordered or unordered lists, Comparison of arrays and linked lists as data structures Linked implementation of stack, queue and de-queue, Algorithms for of insertion, deletion and traversal of stack, Queue, Dequeue implemented using linked structures. Polynomial representation using linked lists for addition, Concepts of Head Node in linked lists SEARCHING – Sequential and binary search.

Unit-4

NON-LINEAR STRUCTURES – Trees definition, Characteristics concept of child, Sibling, Parent child relationship etc, Binary tree: different types of binary trees based on distribution of nodes, Binary tree (threaded and unthreaded) as data structure, insertion, Deletion and traversal of binary trees, constructing binary tree from traversal results. Threaded binary Tree. Time complexity of insertion, deletion and traversal in threaded and ordinary binary trees. AVL tree: Concept of balanced trees, balance factor in AVL trees, insertion into and deletion from AVL tree, balancing AVL tree after insertion and deletion. Application of trees for representation of sets.

Unit-5

GRAPHS – Definition, Relation between tree & graph, directed and undirected graph, representation of graphs using adjacency matrix and list. Depth first and breadth first traversal of graphs, Finding connected components and spanning tree. Single source single destination shortest path algorithms

SORTING – Insertion, quick, Heap, Topological and bubble sorting algorithms for different characteristics of input data. Comparison of sorting algorithms in term of time complexity.
Note: Algorithm for any operation mentioned with a data structure or required to implement the particular data structure is included in the curriculum.

Text Books :

1. Malik–Data structures using C++, Cengage Learning (2010)

References Books :

1.  Drozdek – Data structures and algorithms in C++ , Cengage learning
2.  An introduction to data structures with applications By Jean-Paul Tremblay, P. G. Sorenson, TMH
3.  Data Structures in C/C++, Horowitz, Sawhney, Galgotia
4.  Gilberg & Forouzan – Data structures: A pseudocode approach with c, Cengage learning
5.  Data Structures in C/C++, Tanenbaum, Pearson
6.  Data Structures in C++, Weiss, Parson

DIGITAL ELECTRONICS

Unit-1

NUMBER SYSTEMS, BASIC LOGIC GATES & BOOLEAN ALGEBRA – Binary Arithmetic & Radix representation of different numbers.
Sign & magnitude representation, Fixed point representation, complement notation, various codes & arithmetic in different codes & their inter conversion. Features of logic algebra, postulates of Boolean algebra, Theorems of Boolean algebra. Boolean function. Derived logic gates: Exclusive-OR, NAND, NOR gates, their block diagrams and truth tables. Logic diagrams from Boolean expressions and vica-versa, Converting logic diagrams to universal logic. Positive, Negative and mixed logic, Logic gate conversion.

Unit-2

DIGITAL LOGIC GATE CHARACTERISTICS – TTL logic gate characteristics. Theory & operation of TTL NAND gate circuitry. Open collector TTL. Three state output logic. TTL subfamilies. MOS & CMOS logic families, Realization of logic gates in RTL, DTL, ECL, C-MOS & MOSFET, Interfacing logic families to one another.

Unit-3

MINIMIZATION TECHNIQUES – Minterm, Maxterm, Karnaugh Map, K- map upto 4 variables, Simplification of logic functions with K-map, conversion of truth tables in POS and SOP form. Incomplete specified functions, Variable mapping. Quinn-Mc Klusky minimization techniques.

Unit-4

COMBINATIONAL SYSTEMS – Combinational logic circuit design, half and full adder, subtractor. Binary serial and parallel adders. BCD adder. Binary multiplier.

Decoder: Binary to Gray decoder, BCD to decimal, BCD to 7-segment decoder.

Multiplexer, Demultiplexer, Encoder. Octal to binary, BCD to excess-3 encoder. Diode switching matrix. Design of logic circuits by multiplexers, encoders, decoders and demultiplexers.

Unit-5

SEQUENTIAL SYSTEMS – Latches, Flip-flops, R-S, D, J-K, Master Slave flip flops. Conversions of flip-flops, Counters: Synchronous & Asynchronous ripple and decade counters, Modulus counter, Skipping state counter, Counter design, State diagrams and state reduction techniques, Ring counter, Counter applications, Registers: Buffer register, Shift register.

Text Books :

1. Digital integrated electronics, By Herbert Taub, Donald L. Schilling, TMH (2004)
2. Digital Logic and Computer Design By M. Morris Mano, Pearson(1979)

 

References Books :

1. Ghoshal – Digital Electronics, Cengage Learning
2. Roth – Fundamentals of Logic design, Cengage learning
3. Pulse and digital Switching waveforms By Millman Taub, TMH
4. Fundamentals of Digital circuits, A. Anand kumar, PHI
5. Leach, Digital Principles and Applications, TMH
6. Digital Electronics: Principles and Integrated Circuits, Maini, Wiley

CIRCUIT ANALYSIS & SYNTHESIS

Unit-1

NETWORK THEOREMS AND ELEMENTS – Thevenin’s, Norton’s, Reciprocity, Superposition, Compensation, Miller’s, Tellegen’s and maximum power transfer theorems. Networks with dependent sources. Inductively coupled circuits – mutual inductance, coefficient of coupling and mutual inductance between portions of same circuits and between parallel branches. Transformer equivalent, inductively and conductively coupled circuits.

Unit-2

TRANSIENTS ANALYSIS – Impulse, Step, Ramp and sinusoidal response analysis of first order and second order circuits. Time domain & transform domain (frequency, Laplace) analysis. Initial and final value theorems. Complex periodic waves and their analysis by Fourier analysis. Different kind of symmetry. Power in a circuit.

Unit-3

NETWORK FUNCTIONS – Terminals and terminal pairs, Driving point impedance transfer functions, Poles and zeros, Restrictions on pole and zero location in s-plane. Time domain behavior from pole and zero plot, Procedure for finding network functions for general two terminal pair networks, Stability & causality, Hurwitz polynomial, positive real function.

Unit-4

TWO PORT NETWORKS – Two Port General Networks: Two port parameters (impedance, admittance, hybrid, ABCD and S parameters) and their inter relations. Equivalence of two ports. Transformer equivalent, interconnection of two port networks. The ladder network, image impedance, image transfer function, application to L-C network, attenuation and phase shift in symmetrical T and pi networks.

Unit-5

NETWORK SYNTHESIS – The four-reactance function forms, specification for reactance function. Foster form of reactance networks. Cauer form of reactance networks Synthesis of R-L and R-C and L-C networks in Foster and Cauer forms.

Text Books :

1. Network Analysis & Synthesis, Kuo, Wiley (2006)

References Books :

1. Circuits And Networks: Analysis And Synthesis, Sudhakar, TMH
2. Sivanagaraju – Electrical circuit analysis, Cengage learning
3. Robbins – Circuit analysis : Theory and Practice, Cengage Learning
4. Electrical Networks, Singh, TMH
5. Electric Circuits, Nilsson, Pearson
6. Linear Circuits Analysis, Decarlo, Oxford
7. Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, Irwin, Wiley
8. Network Theory: Analysis And Synthesis, Smarjit Ghosh, PHI
9. Electric Circuit Analysis, Xavier, S.P. Eugene, New Age

ELECTROMAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS

Unit-1

DIELECTRICS MATERIALS – Introduction, Polarization, Polarizability, Different types of polarization, Electronic, ionic, Orientation and space polarization, frequency and temperature dependence of different polarization, Dielectric loss and loss tangent, energy store and loss in dynamic polarization, Phenomenon of spontaneous polarization and ferro-electricity, Ferroelectric hysteresis loop, Piezoelectricity, piezoelectric materials: Quartz, Rochelle salt and PZT , Applications of dielectrics.

Unit-2

MAGNETIC MATERIALS – Introduction, magnetization, theory of Dia, Para, Ferro- Ferrimagnetism and antiferromagnetism, Weiss field and magnetic domains, BH hysteresis loop, soft and hard magnetic materials and their applications, magnetic energy. Magnetostriction, giant magnetostriction resistor (GMR) and engineering applications of it. Magnetic spin, new electronic devices based on magnetic spin.

Unit-3

SEMI CONDUCTOR MATERIALS – Introduction, Energy band gap structures of semiconductors, Classifications of semiconductors, Degenerate and non-degenerate semiconductors, Direct and indirect band gap semiconductors, Electronic properties of Silicon, Germanium, Compound Semiconductor, Gallium Arsenide, Gallium phosphide & Silicon carbide, Variation of semiconductor conductivity, resistance and bandgap with temperature and doping. Thermistors, Sensitors.

Unit-4

CONDUCTIVE & SUPERCONDUCTIVE MATERIALS – Electrical properties of conductive and resistive materials. , Energy bandgap structures of metals, resistivity of conductors and multiphase solids, Matthiessen’s rule, Important characteristics and electronic applications of specific conductor & resistance materials, Superconductor phenomenon, Type I and Type II superconductors. Theory of superconductors, High temperature superconductors and their applications.

Unit-5

NANOMATERIALS – Introduction, Change in band structure at nano-stage. Structure of Quantom dots (nano-dots) & Quantom wires, Fabrication & Characterization of nanomaterials, Structure of single wall and multi-wall carbon nanotube (CNT), Change in electrical, Electronic and optical properties at nano stage, Potential applications of nano materials.

Text Books :

1. Kasap, Principles of Electronic Materials and Devices, TMH (2005).
2. Robert M Rose, Lawrence A. Shepard and Jhon Wulff, The structure and peroperties of materials vol.4

References Books :

1.  Askeland – The science and engineering of materials, Cengage learning
2. Electronic Materials and Processes, Kaul Bhan & Jain, Genius publications
3. Allison, Principles of Electronic Materials and Devices, TMH
4. Neamen, Semiconductor Physics and Devices, TMH
5. Guozhong Cao, Ying Wang Nanostructures and Nanomaterials Synthesis
6. Dekker, Electrical properties of materials

ADVANCED ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS I

Unit-1

LAPLACE TRANSFORM – Laplace transform with its simple properties, applications to the solution of ordinary and partial differential equations having constant co-efficients with special reference to the wave and diffusion equations.

Unit-2

FOURIER SERIES & Z TRANSFORM – Expansion of simple functions in fourier series. Half range series, Change of intervals, Harmonic analysis. Z TRANSFORM – Introduction, Properties, Inverse Z Transform.

Unit-3

FOURIER TRANSFORM – Complex form of Fourier Transform and its inverse, Fourier sine and cosine transform and their inversion. Applications of Fourier Transform to solution of partial differential equations having constant co- efficient with special reference to heat equation and wave equation.

Unit-4

COMPLEX VARIABLES – Analytic functions, Cauchy-Riemann equations, Elementary conformal mapping with simple applications, Line integral in complex domain, Cauchy;s theorem. Cauchy’s integral formula.

Unit-5

COMPLEX VARIABLES -Taylor’s series Laurent’s series poles, Residues, Evaluation of simple definite real integrals using the theorem of residues. Simple contour integration.

Text Books :

1. Advanced Engineering Mathematics, Irvin Kreyszig, Wiley (2010)
2. Engineering Mathematics: A Foundation for Electronic, Electrical, Communications and Systems Engineers, 3/e Croft, Pearson (2009)

References Books :

1. Datta – Mathematical methods of science and engineering, Cengage Learning
2. O’neil – Advanced engineering mathematics, Cengage learning
3. Engineering Mathematics, T Veerarajan, TMH
4. Advance Engineering Mathematics, Potter, Oxford
5. Mathematical Methods, Dutta, D., New Age
6. Elementary Number Theory with applications: Thomas Koshy, 2nd Ed., Elsevier.
7. Engineering Mathematics III By Prof. K.C. Sarangi and others, Genius publications
8. Engineering Mathematics, Babu Ram, Pearson

ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENTATION WORKSHOP

Experiments :

1. Identification, Study & Testing of various electronic components : (a) Resistances- Various types, Colour coding (b) Capacitors-Various types, Coding, (c) Inductors (d) Diodes (e) Transistors (f) SCRs (g) ICs (h) Photo diode (i) Photo transistor (j) LED (k) LDR (l) Potentiometers .
2. Study of symbols for various Electrical & Electronic Components, Devices, Circuit functions etc.
3. To study and perform experiment on CRO demonstration kit.
4. Soldering & Desoldering practice.
5. To Design & fabricate a PCB for a Regulated power supply. Assemble the Regulated power supply using PCB and test it.
6. To study and plot the characteristics of following Opto-Electronic devices –(a) LED (b) LDR (C) Photovoltatic cell (d) Opto-coupler (e) Photo diode (f) Photo transistor (g) Solar cell
7. To study the specifications and working of a Transistor radio (AM & FM) kit and perform measurements on it.
8. To study the specifications and working of a Public address System.
9. To prepare design layout of PCBs using software tools.
10.To fabricate PCB and testing of electronics circuit on PCB.
11. To design and test Switch Mode Power Supply using ICs
12. To study the specifications and working of a DVD Player.
13. To study the specifications and working of LCD TV.
14. To study the specifications and working of LED TV.

COMPUTER PROGRAMMING LAB-I

Experiments :

1. Write a simple C program on a 32 bit compiler to understand the concept of array storage, size of a word. The program shall be written illustrating the concept of row major and column major storage. Find the address of element and verify it with the theoretical value. Program may be written for arrays upto 4-dimensions.
2. Simulate a stack, queue, circular queue and dequeue using a one dimensional array as storage element. The program should implement the basic addition, deletion and traversal operations.
3. Represent a 2-variable polynomial using array. Use this representation to implement addition of polynomials.
4. Represent a sparse matrix using array. Implement addition and transposition operations using the representation.
5. Implement singly, doubly and circularly connected linked lists illustrating operations like addition at different locations, deletion from specified locations and traversal.
6. Repeat exercises 2, 3 & 4 with linked structures.
7. Implementation of binary tree with operations like addition, deletion, traversal.
8. Depth first and breadth first traversal of graphs represented using adjacency matrix and list.
9. Implementation of binary search in arrays and on linked Binary Search Tree.
10. Implementation of insertion, quick, heap, topological and bubble sorting algorithms.

ELECTRONIC DEVICE  LAB

Experiments :

1. Study the following devices: (a) Analog & digital multimeters (b) Function/ Signal generators (c) Regulated d. c. power supplies (constant voltage and constant current operations) (d) Study of analog CRO, measurement of time period, amplitude, frequency & phase angle using Lissajous figures.
2. Plot V-I characteristic of P-N junction diode & calculate cut-in voltage, reverse Saturation current and static & dynamic resistances.
3. Plot V-I characteristic of zener diode and study of zener diode as voltage regulator. Observe the effect of load changes and determine load limits of the voltage regulator.
4. Plot frequency response curve for single stage amplifier and to determine gain bandwidth product
5. Plot drain current – drain voltage and drain current – gate bias characteristics of field effect transistor and measure of Idss & Vp
6. Application of Diode as clipper & clamper
7. Plot gain- frequency characteristic of two stage RC coupled amplifier & calculate its bandwidth and compare it with theoretical value.
8. Plot gain- frequency characteristic of emitter follower & find out its input and output resistances.
9. Plot input and output characteristics of BJT in CB, CC and CE configurations. Find their h-parameters
10.Study half wave rectifier and effect of filters on wave. Also calculate theoretical & practical ripple factor.
11. Study bridge rectifier and measure the effect of filter network on D.C. voltage output & ripple factor.

DIGITAL ELECTRONICS LAB

1. To verify the truth tables of basic logic gates: AND, OR, NOR, NAND, NOR. Also to verify the truth table of Ex-OR, Ex-NOR (For 2, 3, & 4 inputs using gates with 2, 3, & 4 inputs).
2. To verify the truth table of OR, AND, NOR, Ex-OR, Ex-NOR realized using NAND & NOR gates.
3. To realize an SOP and POS expression.
4. To realize Half adder/ Subtractor & Full Adder/ Subtractor using NAND & NOR gates and to verify their truth tables
5. To realize a 4-bit ripple adder/ Subtractor using basic Half adder/ Subtractor & basic Full Adder/ Subtractor.
6. To verify the truth table of 4-to-1 multiplexer and 1-to-4 demultiplexer. Realize the multiplexer using basic gates only. Also to construct and 8-to-1 multiplexer and 1-to-8 demultiplexer using blocks of 4-to-1 multiplexer and 1-to-4 demultiplexer
7. Design & Realize a combinational circuit that will accept a 2421 BCD code and drive a TIL -312 seven-segment display
8. Using basic logic gates, realize the R-S, J-K and D-flip flops with and without clock signal and verify their truth table.
9. Construct a divide by 2, 4 & 8 asynchronous counter. Construct a 4-bit binary counter and ring counter for a particular output pattern using D flip flop.
10. Perform input/output operations on parallel in/Parallel out and Serial in/Serial out registers using clock. Also exercise loading only one of multiple values into the register using multiplexer.

VTU Syllabus Biotechnology Engineering 4th Semester

BIOSTATISTICS AND BIOMODELING Sem IV

Module-1

BASIC STATISTICS Histogram, Ogive curve, Pie Diagram. Measure of dispersion (range, quartile deviation, mean deviation and standard deviation, coefficient of variation), Skewness & kurtosis.

Module-2

BI-VARIATE DISTRIBUTION Correlation, rank correlation and regression analysis (simple and linear) curve fitting (linear, non-linear and exponential).

Module-3

PROBABILITY Axioms, conditional probability, Bayes rule, Genetic Applications of Probability, Hardy – Weinberg law, Wahlund’s Principle, Forensic probability determination, Likelihood of paternity, Estimation of probabilities for multi-locus/ allele finger print systems. Random variables- Discrete and Continuous Probability distribution, Mathematical expectations.

Module-4

PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS Discrete probability distributions- Binomial, Poisson, normal, exponential derivations. Central limit theorem. T distributions.

Module-5

STATISTICAL INFERENCE Estimation theory and testing of hypothesis, point estimation, interval estimation, sample size determination, parametric and non-parametric distributions -F-test, Chi Squared distribution, and goodness of fit test analysis of variance (one-way classifications). Randomization, random assignments, single and double blind experiments. Case studies of statistical designs of biological experiments. Microbial Growth in a Chemostat, Growth Equations of Microbial populations, Models of Commensalisms, Mutualism, Predation and Mutation. Volterra’s Model for n Interacting Species. Cigarette smoking, Lung cancer, epidemics.

Text Books :

  1. Principles of Biostatistics by Marcello Pagano & Kimberlee G, Thompson Learning.
  2. Introduction to Biostatistics by Ronadd N Forthofer and EunSul Lee, Academic Press.
  3. Mathematical Models in Biology and Medicine by J.N.Kapur New Age International.
  4. Introduction to Biostatistics by Ipsen, Feigl & Bancroft, Harper & Row, Publishers,NY.
  5. Basic Biostatistics & its Applications by Animesh K Datta , New Central Book Agency.
  6. Fundamentals of Biostatistics by P Hanumanth Rao and K Janardhan, IK Intl. Publishers.
  7. Biostatistics by Rastogi V.B. Medtec 3rded , 2015

Reference Books :

  1. Statistical methods in Bioinformatics by Warren J. Ewens, Gregory R. Grant, Springer 2nd edition, 2006.
  2. An Introduction to Biostatistics by P. S. S. Sundar Rao and J. Richard, Prentice Hall of India, publications, 4th edition, 2006.
  3. Biostatistics: A foundation for Analysis in the Health sciences by Wayne W. Daniel, John 7th edition, 2000.
  4. Fundamentals of Biostatistics by Veer BalaRastogi, Ane Books India.

BIOCHEMICAL THERMODYNAMICS Sem IV

Module-1

BASIC CONCEPTS & LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS System, Surrounding & Processes, Closed and Open systems, State Properties, Intensive & Extensive Properties, State and Path functions, Equilibrium state, enthalpy, specific heat, Reversible and Irreversible processes.
Zeroth law of Thermodynamics, General statement of First law of Thermodynamics, First law for Cyclic Process, Non- Flow Process, Flow process, Heat capacity. Heat reservoir and Heat engines. General statements of the second law, Concept of entropy, Carnot principle, Calculation of entropy changes, Clausius inequality, Entropy and Irreversibility, Third law of Thermodynamics. Numericals.

Module-2

PVT BEHAVIOUR AND COMPRESSIBILITY CHARTS
PVT Behavior of pure fluids, equations of state & ideal gas law, Processes involving ideal gas law: Constant volume, constant pressure, constant temperature, adiabatic & polytrophic processes, Equations of state for real gases: Vander Waals equation, Redlich-Kwong equation, Peng- Robinson equation, virial equation. Numericals. Principles of corresponding states, generalized compressibility charts, Heat effects accompanying chemical reactions, Standard heat of reaction, formation, combustion, Hess’s law of constant heat summation, effect of temperature on standard heat of reaction.

Module-3

PROPERTIES OF PURE FLUIDS & THERMODYNAMIC DIAGRAMS
Reference properties, energy properties, derived properties, work function, Helmholtz free energy, Gibbs free energy, Relationships among thermodynamic Properties: Exact differential equations, fundamental property relations, Maxwell’s equations, Clapeyron equations, modified equations for internal energy (U) & enthalpy (H), Effect of temperature on U, H & Entropy (S). Gibbs- Helmholtz equation. Concept of Fugacity, Fugacity coefficient, effect of temperature and pressure on fugacity, Determination of fugacity of pure gases, solids and liquids, Activity: Effect of temperature and pressure on activity. Numericals. Thermodynamic diagrams – types of diagrams and construction of thermodynamic diagrams. Numericals.

Module-4

PROPERTIES OF SOLUTIONS & PHASE EQUILIBRIA
Partial molar properties of solution and its determination , chemical potential –effect of temperature and pressure , lewis –randall rule, Raoults law for ideal solutions, fugacity in solutions, Henry’s law and dilute solutions – ideal behavior of real solutions and Henry’s law, Activity in solutions, Activity coefficients effect of temperature and pressure, Gibbs – Duhem equation, calculation of activity coefficients using Gibbs-Duhem equation. Numericals. Criteria of phase Equilibria, criterion of stability, Duhem’s theorem, Vapour-Liquid Equilibria, VLE in ideal solutions, Non-Ideal solutions, Consistency test for VLE data, Azeotropes. Numericals.

Module-5

BIOCHEMICAL ENERGETICS
Coupled reactions and energy rise compounds, Reaction Stoichiometry, criteria of biochemical reaction equilibrium, equilibrium constant and standard free energy change, effect of temperature, pressure on equilibrium constants and other- factors affecting equilibrium conversion – Le – chatelier’s principle, liquid phase reactions, heterogeneous bioreaction equilibria, phase rule for reacting systems, Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium diagrams. Numericals.

Text Books :

  1. Introduction to Chemical Engineering thermodynamics, 6th Ed (2003) by J.M. Smith , H.C.  Van Ness & M.M.Abbott. MGH.
  2. Biochemical Calculations, 2nd Ed,( 1976) by Irwin H.Segel, John Wiley & Sons.
  3. Engineering Thermodynamics by R K Singal, I K Intl.
  4. Engineering Thermodynamics by Spading and Cole, ELBS.
  5. Engineering Thermodynamics by Jones J.B. Hawkins, John Wiley.
  6. Principles of Biochemistry by Albert Lehninger, CBS publishers.
  7. Bioenergetics by L Eruster, Academic Press, New York

Reference Books :

  1. Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics by Y.V.C. Rao, New Age International.
  2. A Textbook  of  Chemical  Engineering  Thermodynamics,      1st   Ed  (2001)  by  K.V. Narayanan, PHI.
  3. Principles of Biochemistry by Lubert Stryer, Freeman Int. Edition.
  4. Biochemistry by Mathews, Vanholde & Arhen, Pearson Education.
  5. Biochemistry by Garett & Grisham, Thompson Learning.

MOLECULAR BIOLOGY Sem IV

Module-1

INTRODUCTION & REPLICATION OF DNA
Chromosomal theory of heredity, genes and their location. Genetic code, Information flow in biological systems: central dogma, updated central dogma. Structures and forms of nucleic acids – DNA and RNA. Replication of DNA, structure and function of DNA polymerases, models of replications in prokaryotes, mechanism of DNA replication and enzymes involved.

Module-2

TRANSCRIPTION: Structure and function of RNA polymerases (prokaryotes & eukaryotes), mechanism of transcription in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, transcription factors, post-transcriptional processing (RNA editing, siRNA, splicing, poly A tail and 5’ capping), transcription inhibitors.

Module-3

TRANSLATION
Mechanism of translation, activation of amino acid initiation, elongation and termination of protein synthesis. Post translational modification and protein targeting, protein splicing. Differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic protein synthesis, inhibitors of translation.

Module-4

GENE EXPRESSION IN PROKARYOTES & EUKARYOTES
Regulation of gene expression in prokaryotes: Operon model, gal, lac, trp Operons; positive versus negative
regulation. Regulation of eukaryotic gene expression, transcriptional control, homeobox in the control of developments in insects and vertebrates.

Module-5

GENETIC RECOMBINATION, MUTATION & GENE MAPPING
Genetic recombination in bacteria and viruses, site specific recombination, transposons and insertion sequences; Retroviruses. DNA damage & Repair, Mutation, Role of recombination and transposition in evolution; gene mapping techniques.

Text Books :

  1. Essentials of Molecular Biology by David Freifelder, Narosa Pub. House.
  2. Molecular Biology of the Cell by Alberts et al., Garland Publishing.
  3. Principles of Gene manipulation and Genomics by Primrose, Oxford University Press.
  4. Molecular Biology of the Gene by James D Watson et al., Pearson Education.

Reference Books:

  1. Statistical methods in Bioinformatics by Warren J. Ewens, Gregory R. Grant, Springer 2nd edition, 2006.
  2. An Introduction to Biostatistics by P. S. S. Sundar Rao and J. Richard, Prentice Hall of India, publications, 4th edition, 2006.
  3. Biostatistics: A foundation for Analysis in the Health sciences by Wayne W. Daniel, John 7th edition, 2000.
  4. A Textbook of Molecular Biology by S.M Gopinath, Archers & Elevators International Publishing House India. 1st Edition. 2014.
  5. Fundamentals of Biostatistics by Veer BalaRastogi, Ane Books India.

BIOPROCESS PRINCIPLES & CALCULATIONS Sem IV

Module-1

BASIC CHEMICAL CALCULATIONS AND MATERIAL BALANCE
Concept of atom and mole, expressing composition of mixtures in Solids, liquids and gases. Expressing composition of mixtures and solutions – Percentage by weight percentage, mole percentage and Volume percentage; Normality, Morality, Molality. Generalized material balance equations for distillation, absorption, extraction, crystallization, mixing, drying & evaporation.

Module-2

MATERIAL BALANCE WITHOUT CHEMICAL REACTIONS AND FUELS
Material balances calculation in Distillation, Absorption, Extraction, Crystallization, Drying, Mixing and Evaporation Operations, Fuels – types of fuels, (solid, liquid and gaseous fuel), relevance to biofuels, characteristics of fuels, Ultimate and proximate analyses of fuels.

Module-3

MATERIAL BALANCE INVOLVING CHEMICAL REACTIONS
Material balances calculation involving bypass, recycle and operations. Generalized material balance equations, Principles of stoichiometry, Definitions of limiting and excess reactants, fractions and percentage conversion, yield and percentage yield, Selectivity, unit process – neutralization, oxidation, nitration, hydrolysis, and problems relating to these unit processes.

Module-4

ENERGY BALANCE
General energy balance equation for steady state. Heat capacity, estimation of heat capacity for solids, liquids, gases and their mixtures. Enthalpy, Standard Heat of formation, standard heat of  reaction, Standard heat of combustion and calorific value, Calculation of heat of reaction at elevated temperature.

Module-5

BIOPROCESS PRINCIPLES & STOICHIOMETRY OF BIOPROCES
Historical development of bioprocess technology; Bioprocess principles and operations, generalized process flow sheets. General material balance equation for steady state (for manufacture of penicillin and ethanol) – outline of a bioprocess and the various (upstream and downstream) unit operations involved in bioprocesses. Stoichiometry of microbial growth and product formation.

Text  Books:

  1. Principles of Biochemistry by David L. Nelson (Editors), W.H. freeman and company.
  2. Bioprocess Engineering Principles by Pauline Doran, Academic Press.
  3. Biochemical Engg. Fundamentals by J E Bailey & D. F. Ollis, McGraw Hill.
  4. Biochemical Calculations by I.H.Segel, John Wiley & Sons.

Reference Books:

  1. Basic Principles and Calculations in Chemical Engineering by David Himmelblau, PHI
  2. Bioprocess Engineering by Shule and Kargi, Prentice Hall.
  3. Chemical Process Calculations by R. Asokan, University Press, 2011.

STRUCTURAL BIOLOGY Sem IV

Module-1

INTRODUCTION & PROTEIN STRUCTURE
Levels of molecular organization, Brief discussions on: Amino acids, Nucleic acids, Adenylates, Carbohydrates, Lipids, Cofactors, Vitamins, and Hormones. Composition and primary structures of proteins, Conformational analysis and forces that determine protein structures, geometries, phi, psi, omega angles, Ramachandran or steric contour diagram, allowed chi angles of side chains in proteins, hydrogen bonding, disulphide bonds, hydrophobic interactions, vanderwaals forces, potential energy calculations, alpha helices, beta sheets, helix to coil transition, general features and thermodynamic aspects of protein folding, folding kinetics, protein-ligand interactions, Scatchard plot, cooperative interactions, allosteric effects, Hill constant; Relationship between the primary, secondary, and tertiary structure of proteins. Structure of IgG, fibrous proteins (structure of collagen, keratin). Quaternary structures – dimers, homo & hetero dimers, trimers, tetramers; Protein folds, structural families and classes, multifunctional domains (qualitative examples).

Module-2

STRUCTURE OF NUCLEIC ACIDS AND BIOMEMBRANES
General characteristics of nucleic acid structures (A, T, G,C, U), forces and stabilizing geometries, glycosidic bond, rotational isomers. Stabilizing ordered forms of DNA (A, B and Z), base pairing types, base stacking, tertiary structure of DNA (Supercoiled DNA), Melting of the DNA double helix (Hyperchromicity), Interaction with small ions and small molecules. Ribose puckering and Tertiary structure of tRNA. Structure and conformational properties of cell membranes, Singer and Nicholson model, integral proteins in membranes, conformational variations during ion transport, Signal transduction and molecular reception (qualitative).

Module-3

BIOPHYSICAL TECHNIQUES
Rayleigh scattering, ultra-centrifugation, viscometry. Electron microscopy (SEM-TEM, AFM), luminescence (fluorescence & phosphorescence), Calorimetry, DSC, Mass spectrometry, LCMS, MALDI-TOF, Voltage Clamp and Patch Clamp (measurements of membrane potentials).

Module-4

SPECTROSCOPIC TECHNIQUES
X-ray diffraction: structure determination via single crystal diffraction, fibre diffraction; Neutron diffraction. XAFS. NMR spectroscopy (structure determination). ORD/CD, UV, IR, Laser Raman, ESR/EPR.

Module-5

BIOMOLECULAR INTERACTIONS & MOLECULAR DYNAMICS
Association of macromolecules, molecular conjugates, supramolecular interactions, protein-protein interactions, protein-nucleic acid interactions, lipid/membrane-protein interactions. Molecular mechanics and dynamics (Newtonian and Monte Carlo simulations), theoretical principles and its importance towards insilico simulations, results of molecular dynamics calculations and their implications to biological function.

Text  Books:

  1. Biophysical Chemistry by Cantor R. and Schimmel P.R, W. H. Freeman.
  2. Physical Biochemistry by David Freifelder, W H Freeman and Company.
  3. Biophysical Principles of Structure & Function by Fred M. Snell & Sidney Shulman.
  4. Introduction to Protein Structure by Carl Branden and John Tooze, Garland Publishing.
  5. Proteins Structure – A Practical Approach by Creighton, Oxford University Press.
  6. Physical Chemistry: Principles and Applications in Biological Sciences by Tinoco and others, Prentice Hall.

Reference Books:

  1. Biophysics – An Introduction by Cotterill, Wiley Student Edition.
  2. Foundations of Biophysics by A.L. Stanford, Academic Press.
  3. Principles of protein structure by G Schulz and R H Schrimer, Springer Verlag.
  4. Principles of nucleic acid structure by Sanger, Springer Verlag.
  5. Introduction to Protein Science by Arthur M Lesk, Oxford University Press.
  6. Biological Spectroscopy by J. D. Campbell and R. A.Dwek, Plenum Press.
  7. A Textbook of Biochemistry and Biophysics by S.M Gopinath, Archers & Elevators International Publishing House, India

CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY

Module-1

DISORDERS OF CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM Diabetes mellitus, glycohemoglobins, hypo-glycemias, galactosemia and ketone bodies. Various types of glucose tolerance tests. Glycogen storage diseases. Physiology of lipids/lipoproteins. Lipidosis. Clinical inter-relationships of lipids (sphingolipidosis and multiple sclerosis), lipoproteins and apolipoproteins. Diagnostic tests for HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride disorders.

Module-2

INBORN ERRORS OF METABOLISM
a) Disorders of amino acid metabolism – Phenylalanemia, homocystinuria, tyrosinemia, MSUD, phenylketonuria, alkaptonuria, albinism and animoacidurias. b) Disorders of nucleic acid metabolism- Disorders in purine/ pyrimidine metabolism.

Module-3

DISORDERS OF ACID-BASE BALANCE AND THEIR RESPIRATORY AND RENAL MECHANISMS.

Evaluation of organ function tests,Assessment and clinical manifestations of renal, hepatic, pancreatic, gastric and intestinal functions. Clinical importance of bilirubin. Diagnostic enzymes: Principles of diagnostic enzymology. Clinical significance of aspartate aminotransferase , alanine aminotransferase, creatine kinase, aldolase and lactate dehydrogenase. Enzyme tests in determination of myocardial infarction. Enzymes of pancreatic origin and biliary tract.

Module-4

HORMONAL DISTURBANCES
Protein hormones (anterior pituitary hormones, posterior pituitary hormones), steroid hormones, adrenocorticosteroids, and reproductive endocrinology. Disturbances in thyroid function. Disorders of mineral metabolism: Hypocalcaemia, hypocalcaemia, normocalcaemia, hypophosphatemia and hypophosphatemia.

Module-5

BIOCHEMICAL ASPECTS OF HEMATOLOGY

Disorders of erythrocyte metabolism, hemoglobinopathies, thalessemias thrombosis and anemias. Laboratory tests to measure coagulation and thrombolysis. Detoxification in the body: enzymes of detoxification, polymorphism in drug metabolizing enzymes. Mechanism of drug action and channels of its excretion, Disorders of vitamins and trace elements.

Text  Books:

  1. Textbook of Medical Biochemistry by MN Chatterjea and Rana Shinde, Jaypee Brothers.
  2. Lehninger- Principles of Biochemistry by David L. Nelson and Michael M. Cox, 5th Edition, WH  Freeman and Company.
  3. Medical Biochemistry (Paperback) By John W. Baynes and Marek Dominiczak. Publisher Mosby.
  4. Clinical Biochemistry: 3rd Ed By Allan Gaw, Michael Murphy, Robert Cowan, Denis O’Reilly, Michael Stewart and James Shepherd.

Reference Books:

  1. Review of Medical Physiology (Lange Basic Science) (Paperback) By William F. Ganong. Publisher: McGraw-Hill Medical
  2. Harper’s Biochemistry (Lange Medical Books) (Paperback) By Robert K. Murray, Daryl K. Granner, Peter A. Mayes and Victor W.
  3. Clinical Biochemistry Paperbackby Nanda Maheshwari, 2008.
  4. Appreciate the biochemical aspects of hematology.

CELL & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY LABORATORY Sem IV

Experiments :

1. Study of divisional stages in Mitosis.
2. Study of divisional stages in Meiosis.
3. Study of Polytene and Lampbrush chromosomes using permanent slides.
4. Isolation and fusion of plant protoplasts.
5. Isolation of plasmid DNA from bacteria.
6. Isolation of genomic DNA (plant / microbial sources)
7. Agarose gel electrophoresis and quantification of nucleic acids (colorimetric, ethidium bromide dot blot and standard DNA marker)
8. Digestion and mapping of plasmid pUC18.
9. Competent cell preparations.
10. Transformation and selection of recombinants.
11. Study of conjugation in E.coli.
12. Amplification of DNA by PCR.

Reference Book:

  1. Molecular Cell Biology by Darnell J Lodish& H Baltimore, Freeman Pub
  2. Biochemistry & Molecular Biology by William H Elliot and Daphane C Elliot, Oxford University Press
  3. Current protocols in molecular biology,edited by Frederick M. Ausubel et al., John Wiley & Sons
  4. Methods in enzymology by Berger S.L. & Kimmel A.R., Vol.152, Academic Press.
  5. Cellular & Biochemical Science by G. Tripathi, IK Intl.

CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY LABORATORY Sem IV

Experiments :

1. pH measurements, volume / weight measurements, concentration units, sensitivity. Specificity, precision, accuracy, preparation of buffers of constant strength.
2. Titration of amino acids with acids & bases.
3. Qualitative tests for carbohydrate and lipids.
4. Qualitative tests for amino acids and proteins.
5. Estimation of blood sugar by Folin method and by O-toluene method.
6. Estimation of inorganic phosphate by Fiske-Subbarao method.
7. Estimation of amino acid by ninhydrin method.
8. Estimation of total cholesterol from Serum.
9. Determination of Saponification value and iodine value of lipids with error analysis.
10. Determination of acetyl value of a lipid with error analysis.
11. Estimation of urea by diacetyl monooxime method with error analysis.
12. Estimation of iron from hemoglobin with error analysis.

Reference Books:

  1. Modern Experimental Biochemistry by Rodney Boyer, Pearson Education.
  2. Practical Biochemistry by Cole, Cambridge University Press.
  3. Practical Biochemistry by Keith Wilson, Cambridge University Press.
  4. An introduction to practical biochemistry by Plummer, Tata McGraw Hill.
  5. Experimental Biochemistry by Beedu Sashidhar Rao and Vijay Deshpande, I.K.Intl.
  6. Lab Math by Dany Spencer Adams, IK Intl. Pub. House.
  7. Lab Ref by Jaine Roskams & Linda Rodgers, IK Intl. Pub. House.
  8. Manual of Practical Biochemistry for medical students, 2nd edition, University Press.
  9. Practical Manual Of Biochemistry by Sharma S. Medtech ,2016