NCERT Political Science Textbook for Class XII

NCERT Political Science Textbook for Class XII

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around some major issues and themes. The first eight chapters of the book cover a certain period of this history, but in a selective manner by focussing on one issue or theme that dominated those years. The final chapter offers an overview of various issues that have emerged in the most recent period. Politics is often understood as a power game played by some big leaders. Politics is, of course, about power. But politics is also about taking collective decisions, about sorting out differences, about reaching consensus. That is why we simply cannot run our collective affairs without politics. Similarly, big leaders no doubt influence the course of politics. But politics is much more than a story of individual ambitions and frustrations. That is why you will not find much emphasis on personalities in this book. You will find some biographical sketches so as to give you a rich sense of those times. But we do not expect you to memorise these biographical details. In order to give you a feel of the times, we have included many photographs, cartoons, maps and other images. As in other books, Unni and Munni are there to share their innocent yet irreverent questions and comments with you. By now you know that what Unni and Munni say is not the opinion of the textbook. You, and even the authors, may or may not agree with Unni and Munni. But you should, like them, begin to question everything. This book refrains from passing judgement on events and personalities of this period. The objective of this book is to equip you with information and perspectives so that you can take more informed and well thought out positions on politics, either as students of Political Science or as citizens of the country. That is why we tell the story in an open-ended and non-partisan manner. This has not been easy, for there is no way
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a book like this can side-step all the controversial issues. Many of the significant issues of this period were and continue to be subjects of deep political differences. The Team that prepared this book decided to follow certain norms to ensure non-partisan treatment of the subject. Firstly, it presents more than one viewpoint when dealing with controversial subjects. Secondly, wherever available, it uses authentic sources like the reports of various Commissions or court judgements, to reconstruct crucial details. Thirdly, it uses a variety of sources from scholarly writings to different newspapers and magazines, etc. to tell the story. Fourthly, the book avoids detailed discussion of the role of political leaders who are still active in politics. Writing this textbook turned out to be particularly challenging for we do not have sufficient information on this period. Most of the archival material is still closed to the researchers. There are not many standard histories of this period that a textbook like this can draw upon. The Textbook Development Committee turned this challenge into an opportunity. We are grateful to the Team members who spared