Principles of Horticulture (2nd Ed.) (HB)

Principles of Horticulture (2nd Ed.) (HB)
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Principles of Horticulture (2nd Ed.) (HB)

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Publisher: Agrobios Publications
ISBN: 9788177542387
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PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION Horticulture Latin hortus garden cultura cultivation , science and art of growing fruits, vegetables, flowers, shrubs, and trees. Horticulture originally meant the practice of gardening and, by extension, now means the cultivation of plants once grown in gardens. Horticulture became a major industry during the 17th century, in a period when the growth of large cities made it impractical for individuals to produce necessary garden crops on their own property. Horticulture includes the growing of fruit especially tree fruits , known as pomology production of vegetable crops, called olericulture production of flowers, termed floriculture and ornamental horticulture, known also as landscape gardening, which includes the maintenance and design of home grounds, public gardens and parks, private estates, botanical gardens, and recreational areas such as golf courses, football fields, and baseball diamonds. On the basis of commercial aspects, in addition to above four divisions, horticulture is divided into three specialized commercial areas the nursery industry, the plant-growing industry, and the seed production industry. The nursery industry produces fruit trees for the fruit grower, and ornamental plants, particularly woody plants, for the ornamental horticulturist. The plant-growing industry supplies annual, biennial, and perennial plants to the vegetable and flower grower as well as to the ornamental horticulturist. The seed-growing industry produces the seed required for flower and vegetable growing. Bulb production, a major industry in the Netherlands, is commonly associated with both the plant growing and seed-growing industries. The most advanced countries in the field of modern horticulture are the following in Europe, the Netherlands, Germany, France, Belgium, and the United Kingdom in the Americas, the United States in Africa, South Africa and in Australasian, Australia, Tasmania, and New Zealand. In recent years India, Japan, China, and the countries of the former Soviet Union have extended their horticultural crop production. Even crops that have been grown since ancient times, such as coffee, tea, bananas, and vanilla. are presently cultivated by modern horticultural techniques. The science of horticulture, its primary concell1s being maximum yield and superior quality, utilizes other sciences such as genetics, physiology, mathematics, chemistry, physics, and botany. Horticulturists trained in genetics are responsible for most of the improvements in fruits and vegetables and for the production of new varieties. They also develop new strains of plants that resist diseases and insects. Physiologists have succeeded in improving the quality of fruit, and vegetables, in extending their storage life, in bettering the techniques of propagation, and in controlling weeds, nutritional deficiencies, and the amount of growth. Mathematicians appraise horticulture, with computers providing research evaluations as well as permanent data records. Chemists, particularly biochemist" ha e advanced the understanding of plant-growth processes, permitting horticulturists to develop plants that can utilize their environments more effectively. Biochemists, by studying such problems as winter hardiness and drought resistance, have aided in developing plants able to withstand unfavorable environmental conditions. Physicists have provided solutions to certain problems involving the crotch angles in trees the shapes of shrubs, hedges, and screens planting
techniques and ways in which plants can be modified to withstand heavy loads of snow and ice. Horticulture is a jobs oriented science. It provides a wide variety of jobs for many categories of people, directly or indirectly. The direct jobs are greenhouse manager or worker, nursery manager or worker, florist. golf course manager or worker, landscape designer or architect, tree surgeon, groundskeeper, garden center manager or technician, vegetable, fruit grower, flower grower. researcher. extension officer. sales or marketing officer. teacher and farm manager. The indirect jobs include research. chemical industry. machinery. distribution. etc. The present book is an attempt to provide overall information to the readers interested in