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PREFACE TO THE SEVENTH EDITION It gives us great pleasure and satisfaction to present this thoroughly revised and enlarged edition before the readers. An attempt has been made to correct all errors and omissions. While revising the book, due consideration has been given to the valuable suggestions made by the students and teachers of the subject. Almost every chapter has been updated by adding to replacing the material in the previous edition. The chapter on Statistical Quality Control has been thoroughly revised. Many new exercises from the latest examination papers of various Indian Universities Engineering. Institutions have been included. The book now covers question papers up to 2013 examinations. We are indebted to the publishers, S. Chand Company Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi for their sincere efforts, unfailing courtsey and cooperation in bringing out the book in this elegant form. We hope the readers will find this book even more valuable and interesting than its earlier versions. Any constructive suggestions for further improvement of the book will be highly appreciated and thankfully acknowledged.
Er. Prem Kumar Gupta Dr. D.S. Hira
Disclaimer While the authors of this book have made every effort to avoid any mistakes or omission and have used their skill, expertise and knowledge to the best of their capacity to provide accurate and updated information, the authors and S. Chand do not give any representation or warranty with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this publication and are selling this publication on the condition and understanding that they shall not be made liable in any manner whatsoever. S.Chand and the authors expressly disclaim all and any liability responsibility to any person, whether a purchaser or reader of this publication or not, in respect of anything and everything forming part of the contents of this publication. S. Chand shall not be responsible for any errors, omissions or damages arising out of the use of the information contained in this publication. Further, the appearance of the personal name, location, place and incidence, if any in the illustrations used herein is purely coincidental and work of imagination. Thus the same should in no manner be termed as defamatory to any individual.
PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION For more than thirty years, a new branch of science called Operations Research has been fast developing. The essence of Operations Research are models which help us arrive at optimum decisions. It is these models which constitute the subject matter of this book. While writing on Operations Research a particular problem may be approached in many different ways. Thus, the exposition may be intended for mathematicians, economists, engineers, sociologists, etc. This book is written primarily for engineering graduates. This book is simply an introduction to the vast subject of Operations Research. Efforts have been made to simplify the technical material without distorting it. The book does not require a high level of mathematical knowledge on the part of the reader. An elementary knowledge of differential and integral calculus is all that is required to understand the subject. Each chapter begins with a number of important and interesting examples taken from a variety of fields. Almost every problem presents a new idea. The authors feel that knowing the various fields in which a model can help, the reader will gather more interest and incentive to know its theoretical and mathematical background and method of application. Additional examples at the end of each chapter are provided to test the reader s understanding of the subject matter. Every effort has been made to present the subject in a easy, clear, lucid and systematic manner. References at the end of each chapter are given to cover more advanced extension of the