Nitrogenous Biofertilizers

Nitrogenous Biofertilizers
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Nitrogenous Biofertilizers

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Publisher: Agrotech Publications
ISBN: 9788185680897
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PREFACE The world population is likely to double during next 50 years so also the demand for food. Provision of an adequate supply of fixed nitrogen is central to the successful meeting of this food challange. Fertilizer nitrogen is not only costly, but the growing awareness of environmental quality and limitations of nonrenewable resources may introduce additional constraints. Biological dinitrogen fixation has contributed to productivity in natural and agricultural habitats from an early stage in the development of living matter on earth. Until the late 1980s, none of the causal agents had been identified positively, although early writing, as far back as 5000 years ago, testify to the appreciation of legumes as contributors to soil fertility. Since then, a very considerable understanding of the various diazotrophic form, the factors affecting their activity, and their contribution to the nitrogen economy of many habitats, has been achieved. However, this understanding is far from complete, and as we stand at the threshold of an era of intensive investigation in all the aspects of dinitrogen fixation, it is timely that existing knowledge be reviewed and collated. The principal need for a deeper understanding of biological dinitrogen fixation is the urgent requirement to increase agricultural production for a seemingly galloping human population. Although all forms of biological dinitrogen fixation ultimately contribute to such production, increases in the short term are likely to depend on the greater and more efficient utilization of legume-Rhizobium associations. The legumes are foremost in current research, approaches to increasing protein production and the soils nitrogen supply. The problems of increasing food supply are exacerbated by difficulties in producing nitrogenous fertilizers. In the short terms the high capital cost of building fertilizer plants prevent many developing countries
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from producing the quantities of fertilizer required, whereas in long term there is grave concern about the supplies of natural gas required to manufacture these fertilizers. In addition the inefficiency of uses of fertilizer nitrogen by agricultural crops, potential pollution of groundwater by unused nitrogen, denitrification loss of fertilizer nitrogen, possible destructive effects of denitrification products on atmospheric ozone, and transportation, storage and application costs for fertilizer nitrogen are limitations of our current technology. The nature and the magnitude of these problems require that intensive efforts be made to increase biological nitrogen