Industrial Exploitation of Microorganisms
Industrial Exploitation of Microorganisms
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PREFACE Microorganisms have been exploited in multifarious ways since the dawn of human civilization. The ancient humans developed techniques of producing alcohols, acids, beverages, fermented foods, etc. in different countries of the world. For example, yeasts have been exploited throughout the world in several countries for production of different kinds of preparation from kitchen to industry. Many yeast plasmid- and chromosome-based vectors have been constructed for biotechnological applications in industry. Still it is also a major tool for biotechnological applications. Considering the importance of microorganisms, demand of industrial application of microorganisms got increased gradually. Nowadays thousands of antibiotics have been produced through microorganisms during the last 80 years from the discovery of the first antibiotic and many more have been commercialized. In recent years the researchers have developed the techniques to produce products through introducing the desired genes of interest in fungal bacterial plant animal cells. Therefore, prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells are being used as hosts for introduction of recombinant vector s containing genes of desired functions for production of valuable products. Though the direct use of microorganisms is known since the beginning of 16th century but much emphasis has been given on industrial microbiology in recent years for improvement of human and animal health. Among these the lactic acid bacteria are considered and selected as Probiotics . Some non-lactic acid bacteria are also considered as Probiotics. In addition, different species of Spirulina have also been exploited in food industry and Spirulina-based products have now been commercialized. However, due to expanding population day-by-day global food shortage has alarmed the world population. Many varieties of mushrooms have been explored and utilized in multifarious ways since vedic period. Recently, mushrooms are looked up on for the presence of industrially important bioactive molecules, for example anticancerous compound in Shitaki mushroom. In addition, certain higher fungi hold much promise due to the presence of medicinal principles like digestive enzymes, stress reliever, antiviral effects, anti-tumour activity, strengthening health resisting disease, etc. Certain mushrooms like Cordyceps sinensis has traditionally been used for treatment of human diseases like chronic bronchitis, insomnia, hypertension, pneumonia, tuberculosis, anaemia, etc. There is resurgence in the search of new antibiotics in clinically important bacteria, especially in actinomycetes. There are many companies throughout the world that are devoted to commercialization of bioactive compounds from actinomycetes. Therefore, prospects of bioactive compounds in Pharma industries are also increasing day-by-day for large-scale production and commercialization of bioactive compounds. Use of bacterial consortium with or without yeast as Probiotics has revolutionized the area of industrial microbiology because of combating the healthrelated problems of humans. Several bacterial, fungal and viral preparations in different forms are being formulated and marketed because of being eco-friendly and non-hazardous to plants and animals.
Commercial production of highly valued microbial enzymes is gaining attention in recent years due to its great role in many areas of industry, for example, microbial proteases, lipases, cellulases, laccases, phytases, etc. Besides, production of nanoparticles through microorganisms has attracted the attention of researchers throughout the world. The nanoparticles can play a key role in many technologies of the future. One of the key aspects is the development of reliable experimental protocols for the synthesis of nanoparticles over a range of chemical compositions, sizes and high nanodispersity. Several microorganisms are known to produce inorganic materials intra- or extracellularly, for example, nanoparticles of silver, gold, magnetite, siliceous materials, calcium carbonate, metal sulphides, etc. Such microorganisms can be a boon for industries in future. The ability of pharmaco-kinetic behaviour, of different molecules, their toxicity in mammals and the