Impact of Plant Biotechnology on Horticulture (4th Ed)

Impact of Plant Biotechnology on Horticulture (4th Ed)
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Impact of Plant Biotechnology on Horticulture (4th Ed)

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Publisher: Agrobios Publications
ISBN: 9788177544787
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PREFACE
The term biotechnology encompasses a wide array of techniques through which humans employ biological processes to provide useful products. More recently, the term has come to mean the collection of techniques that allow the direct manipulation of specific pieces of genetic material within and between organisms. There are many applications of biotechnology in crop improvement. Modern biotechnology holds considerable promise to meet challenges in agricultural production. It is used in horticultural crops to develop commercial processes and products which also includes the techniques of Recombinant DNA, gene transfer, embryo manipulation, plant regeneration, cell culture, monoclonal antibodies and bio-processed engineering. These techniques can transform ideas into practical applications, viz, certain crops can be genetically altered to increase their tolerance to certain herbicides. Biotechnology can be used to develop safer vaccines against viral and bacterial diseases. It also offers new ideas and techniques applicable to agriculture and also develops a better understanding of living systems of our environment and ourselves. It has a tremendous potential fir improving crop production, animal agriculture and bio-processing. New approaches in biotechnology can develop high yielding and more nutritious crop varieties, improve resistance to disease and also reduce the need for fertilizer and other expensive agricultural chemicals. Plant biotechnologies play a key role in the massive production of improved horticultural crop varieties through in vitro tissue culture followed by clonal propagation , as well as in their genetic improvement. They can also help in propagating plant species which contain useful and biologically active substances, eg., food additive, pigment, pharmaceuticals, biopesticides, etc. Organ tissue and cell culture could be more efficient than conventional extraction. It also helps unlocking the secrets of diseases resistance, regulates growth and development or manipulates communication among cells and among other organisms. India has a wide variety of climate and soil on which a large range of horticultural crops such as, fruits vegetables, potato and other tropical tuber crops ornamental, medicinal and aromatic plants plantation crops spices, cashew and cocoa are grown. The horticulture scenario of the country is rapidly changing. The production and productivity of horticultural crops have increased manifold. Production of fruits and vegetables has tripled in the last 50 years. The productivity has gone up by three times in banana and by 2.5 times in potato. Today horticultural crops cover about 25 per cent of total agricultural exports of the country. The corporate sector is also showing greater interest in horticulture. A major shift in consumption pattern of fresh and processed fruits and vegetables is expected in the coming century. There will be greater technology adoption both in traditional horticultural enterprise as well as in commercial
horticulture sectors. Diversification and value addition will be the key words in the Indian horticulture in the 21st Century. The present book is an attempt to present overall information and techniques of biotechnology for horticultural crop improvement. The book includes chapters Horticulture and Biotechnology An Overview, Biotechnology Researches Promotion and Priorities in India, Applications of Genetic Engineering in Horticulture, Enzymes in Genetic Engineering Nucleic Acid Enzymology , Gene Cloning Vectors, Techniques for Genetic Engineering, Genetic Engineering Techniques of Producing New Horticultural Crop Varieties, Expression of Induced Genes, Gene Silincing and Antisense Technology, Marker Assisted Selection MAS Technique, Scopes and Achievements of Genetically Modified Crops, Eco-Social Impact of Genetically Modified Crops, Plant Tissue Culture Principles and Methodology, Histological, Photographic Techniques and Indexing for Plant Pathogens of Plant Tissue Culture, Protoplast Technology, Micropropagation in Plants, Somatic Embryogenesis, Synseeds or Synthetic Seeds, Somaclonal and Gametoclonal Variant Selection, Gynogenesis and Crop Improvement, Plant Tissue Culture