Fuels and Biofuels

Fuels and Biofuels
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Fuels and Biofuels

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Publisher: Agrobios Publications
ISBN: 9788177543155
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Availability: In Stock
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PREFACE
Energy plays an important role in the development of the country by its continuous supply of energy for its industrial, transport and its related activities. The main sources of energy in our country are mineral and fossil fuels. About 85 of the sources are consumed by the industry, transport and residential sectors. But the major problem with these sources are that they are not only non renewable but also cannot be recycled or reused because they are easily destroyed during combustion. India relies heavily on coal for meeting more than half of its total energy requirement. In terms of coal production India ranks 3rd with nearly 243 billion tonnes, the country accounts for 10 of the world s coal reserves. Coal consumption is projected to increase at an annual rate of 2.21 over the next two decades in India. The demand of coal is found to increase but the source is not sufficient to meet the demand. So the government planned to import gas to reduce the dependence on coal. The single largest source of energy in India after coal is petroleum. India imports about 2 3 of its petroleum requirements and 70 of its oil requirements per year. In 1994, United Nations estimated that the available petroleum resources in the world would be enough only for the next 75 years. The energy demand in India would increase 1.64 times between 1990 and 2010 to reach 5.75 million barrel of oil equivalent per year. Now the world consumes 73 million barrel of oil each day 73 Mb d and one billion barrel of oil per 12 days 1 Bb 12d . The price for the petroleum products is keeps on increasing. With this exponential rise in the petroleum prices and increase in the
demand for the petroleum and their products around the world it appears that the price of crude oil would remain high for a long time. Uncertain supplies and fluctuation in the prices for fossil fuel in international market necessitates switching over to a renewable, safe and environmentally safe fuel. India has a larger population of diesel vehicles. In recent time, the combustion of the fossil fuels has been recognized as a major cause of air pollution in Indian cities. Although CNG and LPG are being promoted as cleaner alternatives but these fuels are in short supply. So there is an urgent need to resort to cleaner alternatives which could reduce the dependency on imports. Use of renewable energy sources like solar, wind, geothermal, tidal and biomass energy can be pollution free and viable alternative to fossil fuels. This can also reduce the dependence on crude oil and the import bill can be slashed, but the high cost in the production precludes their large scale commercial use. Among the various alternatives, the biomass energy mainly the biofuels in particular the biodiesel satisfies the feature of oil at affordable price, with non stop supply and can save the environment. Biodiesel is the ethyl or methyl ester of long chain fatty acid made from virgin or used vegetable oil both edible and non edible oil