Basic Research And Applications Of Mycorrhizae Volume I

Basic Research And Applications Of Mycorrhizae  Volume I
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Basic Research And Applications Of Mycorrhizae Volume I

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Publisher: IK International
ISBN: 9788188237227
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Preface
Nearly all vascular plants establish mutualistic relationships with specific soil borne root-colonizing fungi forming structures known as mycorrhizae. There is a widespread agreement among plant and soil scientists that mycorrhizae are beneficial to the growth and health of soils and plants. The mycorrhizal phenomenon extends the absorptive capabilities of the root system and improves the host plant s abilities to tolerate biological and environmental stresses. Certain mycorrhizal associations have been shown to enhance plant host resistance to specific phytopathogenic fungi to heavy metal pollutants such as cadmium, nickel, copper, zinc and or aluminum to drought and to reduced pH. In addition, certain mycorrhizal associations have been shown to support plant health under conditions of nutritional deficiency and or excessive erosion. Establishment of the mycorrhizal condition, with mycobionts adapted to the existing environment, is essential to the host plant health and survival. The role of mycorrhizal fungi as biofertilizers and ways to increase their utility for crops, forests and ecosystems is a worthwhile task. Especially, for developing countries mycorrhizae provide an avenue to reduce the dependence on chemical fertilizers and ever increasing demand for petroleum products. Mycorrhizae also provide alternate ways to contribute to the sustainable plant and soil ecosystems and help maintain soil and plant biodiversity. Because of their ability to promote growth and protect from stresses mycorrhizal fungi also serve as biohardening agents for horticulture and tissue culture. There are many rhizosphere bacteria that promote plant growth through solubilizing minerals from bound forms in the soil and make it available to plant root. These bacteria are highly efficient in mineralization and are beneficial to plants by making available phosphates and other minerals, which are often limiting in the rhizosphere. Rhizosphere bacteria that
LE Basic Research and Applications of Mycorrhizae favorably influence the plant growth and increase the crop yields are commonly called as Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria PGPRs . The well known PGPRs include species of Azatobacter, Azospirillum, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Enterobacter and Serratia. More recently fungal endophytes such as Pyriformospora indica and Sebacina vermifera isolated from tropical or desert plants have also shown to have very unique and beneficial qualities to support plant growth. These fungi share many features of mycorrhizal fungi and may hold the key to evolutionary connecting links to mycorrhizal fungi. Together, mycorrhizal fungi and PGPRs and fungal endophytes described above are an important and beneficial component of plant rhizosphere and contribute significantly to overall health of plants and ecosystem. We sincerely acknowledge the support received from National Science Foundation, USA and Department of Science and Technology, India. The cooperation received from all the authors is thankfully acknowledged. We are grateful to Mr. Krishan Makhijani, Mr. Beenu Bhalla, Mr. Aditya Phogat and Mr. G. Radhakrishnan Nair for continuous efforts and generous support received in publishing the volumes.
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